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The Orbitofrontal Cortex and Ventral Tegmental Area Are Necessary for Learning from Unexpected Outcomes
Humans and other animals change their behavior in response to unexpected outcomes. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is implicated in such adaptive responding, based on evidence from reversal tasks. YetExpand
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Ventral Striatum and Orbitofrontal Cortex Are Both Required for Model-Based, But Not Model-Free, Reinforcement Learning
In many cases, learning is thought to be driven by differences between the value of rewards we expect and rewards we actually receive. Yet learning can also occur when the identity of the reward weExpand
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State-dependent gating of sensory inputs by zona incerta.
We have previously shown that the GABAergic nucleus zona incerta (ZI) suppresses vibrissae-evoked responses in the posterior medial (POm) thalamus of the rodent somatosensory system. We proposed thatExpand
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The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the pursuit of happiness and more specific rewards
Cues that reliably predict rewards trigger the thoughts and emotions normally evoked by those rewards. Humans and other animals will work, often quite hard, for these cues. This is termed conditionedExpand
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The effects of delayed reinforcement on variability and repetition of response sequences.
Four experiments examined the effects of delays to reinforcement on key peck sequences of pigeons maintained under multiple schedules of contingencies that produced variable or repetitive behavior.Expand
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Ethanol-maintained responding of rats is more resistant to change in a context with added non-drug reinforcement
Alternative non-drug reinforcers reliably decrease drug-maintained responding in self-administration procedures. Studies of the resistance to change of food-maintained behavior, however, have foundExpand
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Conditioned Reinforcement can be Mediated by Either Outcome-Specific or General Affective Representations
Conditioned reinforcers are Pavlovian cues that support the acquisition and maintenance of new instrumental responses. Responding on the basis of conditioned rather than primary reinforcers is aExpand
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Abnormal associative encoding in orbitofrontal neurons in cocaine‐experienced rats during decision‐making
Recent evidence has linked exposure to addictive drugs to an inability to employ information about adverse consequences, or outcomes, to control behavior. For instance, addicts and drug‐experiencedExpand
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Should I Stay or Should I Go?
Abstract:  Animals prefer a small, immediate reward over a larger delayed reward (time discounting). Lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can either increase or decrease the breakpoint at whichExpand
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Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Mediates Adult OPC Maturation and Myelin Repair through Modulation of Akt and GsK-3β Signaling
Failure of remyelination in diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), leads to permanent axonal damage and irreversible functional loss. The mechanisms controlling remyelination are currently poorlyExpand
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