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Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs
TLDR
Digital body reconstructions are used to quantify evolutionary trends in locomotor biomechanics (whole-body proportions and centre-of-mass position) across the clade Archosauria and suggest that the evolution of avian flight is linked to anatomical novelties in the pelvic limb as well as the pectoral.
A Computational Analysis of Limb and Body Dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with Implications for Locomotion, Ontogeny, and Growth
TLDR
It is concluded that adult T. rex had body masses around 6000–8000 kg, with the largest known specimen (“Sue”) perhaps ∼9500 kg, and that the limb “antigravity” muscles may have been as large as or even larger than those of ratite birds, which themselves have the most muscular limbs of any living animal.
Estimating Mass Properties of Dinosaurs Using Laser Imaging and 3D Computer Modelling
TLDR
The results emphasize that future biomechanical assessments of extinct taxa should be preceded by a detailed investigation of the plausible range of mass properties, in which sensitivity analyses are used to identify a suite of possible values to be tested as inputs in analytical models.
Cranial Anatomy of Thalassiodracon hawkinsii (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Early Jurassic of Somerset, United Kingdom
TLDR
The relatively long neck and small skull of Thalassiodracon indicate that the robust skeleton and macropredaceous habits of rhomaleosaurids and pliosaurids were derived independently.
Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians
TLDR
Results suggest that locomotor muscle leverage in Lesothosaurus (and by inference basal ornithischians in general) was more similar to that of other non‐avian dinosaurs than the ostrich, representing what was probably the basal dinosaur condition, which contradicts previous hypotheses of ornithischer–bird functional convergence.
A computational analysis of locomotor anatomy and body mass evolution in Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda)
TLDR
The data set provides further quantitative support for a significant decline in locomotor performance with increasing body size in non-avian theropods, and although key pelvic limb synapomorphies of derived allosauroids evolved at intermediate body sizes, they may nonetheless have improved mass support.
Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics
TLDR
Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals.
Disparity and convergence in bipedal archosaur locomotion
TLDR
Comparisons of muscle leverage supports the inference that bipedal crocodile-line archosaurs and non-avian theropods had highly convergent hindlimb myology, suggesting similar muscular mechanics and neuromuscular control of locomotion.
HOW BIG WAS 'BIG AL'? QUANTIFYING THE EFFECT OF SOFT TISSUE AND OSTEOLOGICAL UNKNOWNS ON MASS PREDICTIONS FOR ALLOSAURUS (DINOSAURIA:THEROPODA)
MOR693, nicknamed ‘Big Al,’ is the most complete skeleton of the non-avian theropod Allosaurus and therefore provides the best opportunity to investigate the mass properties of this important
Human-like external function of the foot, and fully upright gait, confirmed in the 3.66 million year old Laetoli hominin footprints by topographic statistics, experimental footprint-formation and
It is commonly held that the major functional features of the human foot (e.g. a functional longitudinal medial arch, lateral to medial force transfer and hallucal (big-toe) push-off) appear only in
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