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Medicating the environment: assessing risks of pharmaceuticals to wildlife and ecosystems
TLDR
A holistic, global view of environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals encompassing terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in high- and low-income countries is taken, and studies on uptake, trophic transfer and indirect effects of pharmaceuticals acting via food webs are presented.
Extra-pair paternity and egg dumping in birds: life history, parental care and the risk of retaliation
TLDR
The results are interpreted as supporting the idea that alternative reproductive strategies are most common in taxa in which the risks of retaliation are low, with high rates of reproductive cheating being associated with ‘fast’ life histories.
Neonatal nutrition, adult antioxidant defences and sexual attractiveness in the zebra finch
TLDR
The results suggest low–quality neonatal nutrition resulted in a long–term impairment in the capacity to assimilate dietary antioxidants, thereby setting up a need to trade off the requirement for antioxidant activity against the need to maintain morphological development and sexual attractiveness, which could underpin the link between early nutrition and senescence.
Ultraviolet signals in birds are special
TLDR
The results suggest that signals based on UV contrast are of special importance in the context of active sexual displays, and six hypotheses on why this may be the case are reviewed.
Egg composition in relation to social environment and maternal physiological condition in the collared flycatcher
TLDR
The present study investigated whether experimentally elevated social interactions and number of neighbouring pairs influence yolk composition of collared flycatchers and found that yolk lutein and immunoglobulin concentrations were related to the female’s H/L ratio, and yolks antioxidant and α-tocopherol levels showed a seasonal increase and were positively related to a female's plasma carotenoid level.
Cooperative breeding in birds: the role of ecology
TLDR
Comparative methods use comparative methods to examine the role of variation in ecology in explaining differences between taxa in the frequency of cooperative breeding and suggest that cooperative breeding is not due to any single factor, but is a two step process: life-history predisposition and ecological facilitation.
Group Mobbing Behaviour and Nest Defence in a Cooperatively Breeding Australian Bird
TLDR
It is suggested that, in this gregarious species, mobbing behaviour at the nest may be a display of social status or individual quality, and this hypothesis warrants further investigation.
Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring
TLDR
It is shown that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability, and whether by supplying taurine-rich spiders, avian parents influence the stress responsiveness and cognitive function of their offspring is asked.
Seasonal variation in diet quality: antioxidants, invertebrates and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus
TLDR
The data obtained in the present study suggest a mechanism by which environmental change as a result of human activities could influence the health and fitness of individuals in natural populations.
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