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Rac and Cdc42 play distinct roles in regulating PI(3,4,5)P3 and polarity during neutrophil chemotaxis
It is concluded that Rac plays a dominant role in the PI(3,4,5)P3-dependent positive feedback loop required for forming a leading edge, whereas location and stability of the leading edge are regulated by Cdc42.
Glucosylation of Rho proteins by Clostridium difficile toxin B
- I. Just, J. Selzer, M. Wilm, C. Eichel-Streiber, M. Mann, K. Aktories
- Biology, ChemistryNature
- 8 June 1995
It is reported here that toxin B catalyses the incorporation of up to one mole of glucose per mole of RhoA at the amino acid thre-onine at position 37, and UDP-glucose selectively serves as cosubstrate for the monoglucosylation reaction catalysed by toxin B.
Gln 63 of Rho is deamidated by Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1
Analysis by mass spectrometry and amino-acid sequencing of proteolytic peptides derived from C NF1-treated RhoA indicate that CNF1 induces deamidation of a glutamine residue at position 63 (Gln 63) to give constitutively active Rho protein.
Ephrin-A5 Induces Collapse of Growth Cones by Activating Rho and Rho Kinase
- S. Wahl, H. Barth, T. Ciossek, K. Aktories, B. Mueller
- Biology, ChemistryThe Journal of cell biology
- 17 April 2000
The results suggest that activation of Rho and its downstream effector Rho kinase are important elements of the ephrin-A5 signal transduction pathway.
Binary Bacterial Toxins: Biochemistry, Biology, and Applications of Common Clostridium and Bacillus Proteins
- H. Barth, K. Aktories, M. Popoff, B. Stiles
- BiologyMicrobiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
- 1 September 2004
This review comprehensively surveys the literature and discusses the similarities and distinct differences between each Clostridium and Bacillus binary toxin in terms of their biochemistry, biology, genetics, structure, and applications in science and medicine.
The N-terminal Domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosaExoenzyme S Is a GTPase-activating Protein for Rho GTPases*
- U. Goehring, G. Schmidt, K. J. Pederson, K. Aktories, J. Barbieri
- Biology, ChemistryThe Journal of Biological Chemistry
- 17 December 1999
Arginine 146 of ExoS is identified to be essential for the stimulation of GTPase activity of Rho proteins and identifies ExoS as a GTP enzyme-activating protein for Rho GTPases.
Structure and mode of action of clostridial glucosylating toxins: the ABCD model.
Sustained signaling leading to T cell activation results from prolonged T cell receptor occupancy. Role of T cell actin cytoskeleton
- S. Valitutti, M. Dessing, K. Aktories, H. Gallati, A. Lanzavecchia
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of experimental medicine
- 1 February 1995
T cell actin cytoskeleton is identified as a major motor for sustaining signal transduction and possibly for driving TCR cross-linking and offer an explanation for how T cells equipped with low affinity TCR can be triggered by a small number of complexes on APCs.
Bacterial cytotoxins: targeting eukaryotic switches
The role of the actin cytoskeleton and the Rho GTPases in host–pathogen interactions are discussed, and the mode of actions of bacterial protein toxins that target these components are reviewed.
GAP activity of the Yersinia YopE cytotoxin specifically targets the Rho pathway: a mechanism for disruption of actin microfilament structure
- U. von Pawel-Rammingen, M. Telepnev, G. Schmidt, K. Aktories, H. Wolf‐Watz, R. Rosqvist
- BiologyMolecular microbiology
- 1 May 2000
Evidence is provided that YopE exhibits a GAP activity to inactivate RhoGTPases, leading to depolymerization of the actin stress fibres in eukaryotic cells and growth inhibition in yeast.