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The possible role of hydrogen sulfide as an endogenous neuromodulator
It is shown that physiological concentrations of H2S selectively enhance NMDA receptor-mediated responses and facilitate the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation, suggesting that endogenous H 2S functions as a neuromodulator in the brain.
Mutations of optineurin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
It is shown that there are mutations in the gene encoding optineurin (OPTN), earlier reported to be a causative gene of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), in patients with ALS and these findings strongly suggest that OPTN is involved in the pathogenesis of ALS.
Subventricular Zone-Derived Neuroblasts Migrate and Differentiate into Mature Neurons in the Post-Stroke Adult Striatum
Evidence is reported that, after a stroke, subventricular zone GFAP-expressing cells are capable of producing new neurons outside the olfactory bulbs, and long-term tracing of the green fluorescent-labeled cells revealed that the SVZ-derived neuroblasts differentiated into mature neurons in the striatum, in which they expressed neuronal-specific nuclear protein and formed synapses with neighboring striatal cells.
Expansion of intronic GGCCTG hexanucleotide repeat in NOP56 causes SCA36, a type of spinocerebellar ataxia accompanied by motor neuron involvement.
Confirmatory double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety of edaravone (MCI-186) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients
- K. Abe, Y. Itoyama, H. Yoshino
- Medicine, PsychologyAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal…
- 6 October 2014
The reduction of ALSFRS-R was smaller in the edaravone group than in the placebo group, but efficacy of edarvone for treatment of ALS was not demonstrated.
Prospective 10-year surveillance of human prion diseases in Japan.
A frequent occurrence of dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and unique phenotypes of sporadic Creutzfelder disease and genetic prion diseases related to the characteristic distribution of prion protein gene mutations and polymorphisms in Japan, compared with those in western countries are revealed.
Rapid induction of vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.
The early but dissociative induction of VEGF between neuronal and pial cells suggests different roles of the protein in their cells after transient MCA occlusion.
Expansions of intronic TTTCA and TTTTA repeats in benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy
It is shown that abnormal expansions of TTTCA and TTTTA repeats in intron 4 of SAMD12 cause benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy (BAFME), and RNA toxicity as the mechanism underlying disease pathogenesis is identified.
Longitudinal study of cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau, Aβ1–40, and Aβ1–42(43) in Alzheimer's disease: A study in Japan
It is suggested that CSF tau may increase with the clinical progression of dementia and that the alteration of the CSF level of Aβ1–42(43) and the ratio of A β1–40 to Aβ 1–42 (43) may start at early stages in AD.
Melatonin increases survival and inhibits oxidative and amyloid pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease
Administration of melatonin partially inhibited the expected time‐dependent elevation of β‐amyloid, reduced abnormal nitration of proteins, and increased survival in the treated transgenic mice, and these findings may bear relevance to the pathogenesis and therapy of AD.