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The present study was designed to elucidate the inflammatory and apoptotic mechanisms of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in a model of Parkinson's disease. Our results showed that mutant mice lacking the caspase-11 gene were significantly more resistant to the effects of acute treatment with MPTP than their(More)
Recent studies of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis by antidepressants suggest enhancement of neurogenesis is a potentially effective therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we evaluated nigral neurogenesis in animals and autopsy brains including patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). First, proliferating cells in substantia nigra were(More)
Clathrin, which constitutes coated vesicles and plays important roles in neuronal functions, has been reported to be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. In the brains of the patients with Pick's disease, distribution of clathrin was immunohistochemically investigated using monoclonal antibodies binding to different epitopes of clathrin light(More)
Neuronal function and innervation density is regulated by target organ-derived neurotrophic factors. Although cardiac hypertrophy drastically alternates the expression of various growth factors such as endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and leukemia inhibitory factor, little is known about nerve growth factor expression and its effect on the cardiac sympathetic(More)
parkin is the most frequent causative gene among familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Although parkin deficiency induces autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP, PARK2) in humans, parkin knockout (PKO) mice consistently show few signs of dopaminergic degeneration. We aimed to directly measure evoked extracellular dopamine (DA) overflow in the(More)
To elucidate molecular mechanisms in learning and memory, we analyzed expression of mRNAs in brains of rabbits undergoing eyeblink conditioning. Infusion of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D into the cerebellar interpositus nucleus reversibly blocked learning but not performance of the conditioned response. Differential display PCR analysis of(More)
The rotarod test is widely used to evaluate the motor coordination of rodents, and is especially sensitive in detecting cerebellar dysfunction. However, mice with striatal dopamine depletion show only mild or no motor deficit on the typical accelerating rotarod. This suggests that dopamine-depleted mice are useful as animal models for non-motor symptoms,(More)
The I93M mutation in ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) was reported in one German family with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). The causative role of the mutation has, however, been questioned. We generated transgenic (Tg) mice carrying human UCHL1 under control of the PDGF-B promoter; two independent lines were generated with the(More)
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We have identified two novel LRRK2-associated proteins, a HECT-type ubiquitin ligase, HERC2, and an adaptor-like protein with six repeated Neuralized domains, NEURL4. LRRK2 binds to NEURL4 and HERC2 via the LRRK2 Ras of complex(More)
Forests are one of the most important carbon sinks on Earth. However, owing to the complex structure, variable geography, and large area of forests, accurate estimation of forest carbon stocks is still a challenge for both site surveying and remote sensing. For these reasons, the Kyoto Protocol requires the establishment of methodologies for estimating the(More)