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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
It is thought that Na+ and K+ homeostasis is crucial for salt-tolerance in plants. To better understand the Na+ and K+ homeostasis in important crop rice (Oryza sativa L.), a cDNA homologous to the wheat HKT1 encoding K+-Na+ symporter was isolated from japonica rice, cv Nipponbare (Ni-OsHKT1). We also isolated two cDNAs homologous to Ni-OsHKT1 from(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Several authors have reported a case of chronic pancreatitis associated with Sjögren's syndrome in which an autoimmune mechanism may have been involved in the etiology and in which steroid therapy was effective. We recently encountered a patient with pancreatitis who had hyperglobulinemia, was autoantibody-positive, and responded to steroid therapy. This(More)
High-throughput DNA sequencing significantly contributed to diagnosis and prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We determined the biological and prognostic significance of genetic aberrations in MDS. In total, 944 patients with various MDS subtypes were screened for known/putative mutations/deletions in 104 genes using targeted(More)
The mouse Dmc1 gene is an E. coli RecA homolog that is specifically expressed in meiosis. The DMC1 protein was detected in leptotene-to-zygotene spermatocytes, when homolog pairing likely initiates. Targeted gene disruption in the male mouse showed an arrest of meiosis of germ cells at the early zygotene stage, followed by apoptosis. In female mice lacking(More)
Chlorophyll b is an ubiquitous accessory pigment in land plants, green algae, and prochlorophytes. Its biosynthesis plays a key role in the adaptation to various light environments. We isolated six chlorophyll b-less mutants by insertional mutagenesis by using the nitrate reductase or argininosuccinate lyase genes as tags and examined the rearrangement of(More)
Transporter-mediated drug–drug interactions (DDIs) are among the most important of the clinically relevant pharmacokinetic DDIs. We investigated the validity of a static prediction of area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios (AUCRs; AUC(with inhibitor)/AUC(control) using in vitro inhibition profiles, and selected the types of assumptions(More)
A virus with isometric virus particles (ca. 25 nm) was isolated from an apple tree and named Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV). Virus particles purified from infected Chenopodium quinoa formed two bands with densities of 1.41 and 1.43 g/cm(3) in CsCl equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation, indicating that the virus is composed of two components. The(More)
The RIKEN Mouse Gene Encyclopaedia Project, a systematic approach to determining the full coding potential of the mouse genome, involves collection and sequencing of full-length complementary DNAs and physical mapping of the corresponding genes to the mouse genome. We organized an international functional annotation meeting (FANTOM) to annotate the first(More)