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A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling response to photoperiod, Hd1, was identified by means of a map-based cloning strategy. High-resolution mapping using 1505 segregants enabled us to define a genomic region of approximately 12 kb as a candidate for Hd1. Further analysis revealed that the Hd1 QTL corresponds to a gene that is a homolog of(More)
Protein-protein interactions play pivotal roles in various aspects of the structural and functional organization of the cell, and their complete description is indispensable to thorough understanding of the cell. As an approach toward this goal, here we report a comprehensive system to examine two-hybrid interactions in all of the possible combinations(More)
Multiple signal transduction pathways are capable of modifying BCL-2 family members to reset susceptibility to apoptosis. We used two-dimensional peptide mapping and sequencing to identify three residues (Ser70, Ser87, and Thr69) within the unstructured loop of BCL-2 that were phosphorylated in response to microtubule-damaging agents, which also arrest(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been conserved remarkably during evolution and is widely expressed in the mammalian brain. In Drosophila, mutation of the PACAP homologue results in behavioral defects, including impaired olfaction-associated learning and changes in ethanol sensitivity. Here, we report the generation of mice(More)
This study consists of two training experiments using a mechanically braked cycle ergometer. First, the effect of 6 wk of moderate-intensity endurance training (intensity: 70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), 60 min.d-1, 5 d.wk-1) on the anaerobic capacity (the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit) and VO2max was evaluated. After the training, the anaerobic(More)
Mammalian bombesin-like peptides are widely distributed in the central nervous system as well as in the gastrointestinal tract, where they modulate smooth-muscle contraction, exocrine and endocrine processes, metabolism and behaviour. They bind to G-protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface to elicit their effects. Bombesin-like peptide receptors cloned(More)
We established granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent murine microglial clones and investigated the immune properties of four individual clones. All four clones expressed MHC class I and CD54 (ICAM-1) at similar levels. The 5-2, Ra2, and 6-3 clones expressed CD80 (B7-1), CD86 (B7-2), and MHC class II at low, medium, and high(More)
We reported a novel type of calcium release from inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-sensitive calcium stores synergistically induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR)-mediated increase in IP(3) and action potential-induced calcium influx (IP(3)-assisted calcium-induced calcium release, IP(3)-assisted CICR). To clarify its functional(More)
Alteration of creatine kinase BB-isoenzyme (CK-BB) was investigated in the vulnerable CA1 region of the hippocampus of ischemic and postischemic gerbil brains using immunoelectron microscopy. CK-BB existed in the neuronal perikarya, dendrites and axons as well as in astroglias in the normal gerbil brain. Immunocytochemical reaction products were associated(More)
Cathepsin D (CD) deficiency has been shown to induce ceroid-lipofuscin storage in lysosomes of mouse CNS neuron (Koike et al., 2000). To understand the behavior of microglial cells corresponding to these neuronal changes, CD-deficient (CD-/-) mice, which die at approximately postnatal day (P) 25 by intestinal necrosis, were examined using morphological as(More)