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Significant uncertainty exists in the seasonal distribution of NH 3 emissions since the predominant sources are animal husbandry and fertilizer application. Previous studies that estimated bottom–up and top–down NH 3 emissions have provided the most comprehensive information available about the seasonality of NH 3 emissions. In this study, this bottom–up(More)
This study examines ozone (O 3) predictions from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model version 4.5 and discusses potential factors influencing the model results. Daily maximum 8-h average O 3 levels are largely underpredicted when observed O 3 levels are above 85 ppb and overpredicted when they are below 35 ppb. Using a clustering approach,(More)
More than ten state-of-the-art regional air quality models have participated in the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), in which a variety of mesoscale air 40 quality modeling systems have been applied to continental-scale domains in North America and Europe for 2006 full-year simulations. The main goal of AQMEII is model(More)
10 Because all models are a simplification of the phenomenon they aim to represent, it is 11 often more useful to estimate the probability of an event rather than a single " best " model 12 result. Previous air quality ensemble approaches have used computationally expensive 13 simulations of separately developed modeling systems. We present an efficient(More)
This paper describes the results of the application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy to the qualitative, topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of nervous tissue from rats with neocortical brain injury. The tissue samples were analyzed with a 15 μm beam defined by the size of the polycapillary focus. Raster scanning of the samples generated 2D(More)
In the present paper, X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied to follow the processes occurring in rat hippocampal formation during the post-seizure period. In the study, one of the status epilepticus animal models of epilepsy was used, namely the model of temporal lobe epilepsy with pilocarpine-induced seizures. In order to analyze the dynamics of(More)
There is growing experimental evidence that tracing the elements involved in brain hyperexcitability, excitotoxicity, and/or subsequent neurodegeneration could be a valuable source of data on the molecular mechanisms triggering or promoting further development of epilepsy. The most frequently used experimental model of the temporal lobe epilepsy observed in(More)
This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in GMD if available. Abstract This paper examines the operational performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations for 2002–2006 using both 36-km and 12-km horizontal grid spacing(More)