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We have developed a novel method, termed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), that amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions. This method employs a DNA polymerase and a set of four specially designed primers that recognize a total of six distinct sequences on the target DNA. An inner primer containing(More)
The basal ganglia have been implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In the study reported here, we directly tested for response plasticity in striatal neurons of macaque monkeys undergoing Pavlovian conditioning. To focus the study, we recorded from the tonically active neurons (TANs) of the striatum, which are known to respond to conditioned(More)
The genetic code, formerly thought to be frozen, is now known to be in a state of evolution. This was first shown in 1979 by Barrell et al. (G. Barrell, A. T. Bankier, and J. Drouin, Nature [London] 282:189-194, 1979), who found that the universal codons AUA (isoleucine) and UGA (stop) coded for methionine and tryptophan, respectively, in human(More)
Planarians are known for their strong regenerative ability. This ability has been considered to reside in the totipotent somatic stem cell called the "neoblast." Neoblasts contain a unique cytoplasmic structure called the "chromatoid body," which has similar characteristics to the germline granules of germline cells of other animals. The chromatoid bodies(More)
Graphene devices on standard SiO(2) substrates are highly disordered, exhibiting characteristics that are far inferior to the expected intrinsic properties of graphene. Although suspending the graphene above the substrate leads to a substantial improvement in device quality, this geometry imposes severe limitations on device architecture and functionality.(More)
A major component of the large genomes of higher plants and vertebrates comprises transposable elements and their derivatives, which potentially reduce the stability of the genome. It has been proposed that methylation of cytosine residues may suppress transposition, but experimental evidence for this has been limited. Reduced methylation of repeat(More)
In order to clarify the distribution of bifidobacterial species in the human intestinal tract, a 16S rRNA-gene-targeted species-specific PCR technique was developed and used with DNAs extracted from fecal samples obtained from 48 healthy adults and 27 breast-fed infants. To cover all of the bifidobacterial species that have been isolated from and identified(More)
Planarians are considered to be among the most primitive animals which developed the central nervous system (CNS). To understand the origin and evolution of the CNS, we have isolated a neural marker gene from a planarian, Dugesia japonica, and analyzed the structure of the planarian CNS by in situ hybridization. The planarian CNS is located on the ventral(More)
To analyze the organization of planarian brain, a homolog of the homeobox-containing gene Orthopedia (Otp) from planarian, Djotp, was isolated. The homeodomain of Djotp differs from mouse Otp by only two amino acids. This conservation extends to include a 12 amino acid motif downstream of the homeodomain. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies indicated(More)
Although the operative results have been improving since the air drill was introduced for cervical laminectomy instead of an ordinary rongeur, post-laminectomy complications, such as postoperative fragility of the cervical spine to acute neck trauma, posterior spur formation at the vertebral body, and malalignment of the lateral curvature have still(More)