K. Wachsmuth

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A standardized scheme of 27 different BglI ribotypes and subtypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains is proposed on the basis of data from 214 human and environmental strains isolated in 35 countries and 14 U.S. states over the past 60 years. The ribotype patterns obtained are reproducible and stable over time. Seven different but very similar ribotypes (1a to(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), make potent cytotoxins (Verotoxins [VT] or Shiga-like toxins), and possess a plasmid (approximately 60 megadaltons) that encodes a new fimbrial antigen and promotes attachment to epithelial cells. We evaluated the use of a DNA probe, prepared from a(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of serotype O157:H7 has two putative virulence factors: (i) a fimbrial adhesin, specified by a 60-megadalton (MDa) plasmid, and (ii) bacteriophage-specified cytotoxin(s), known as Shiga-like toxin (SLT) or verotoxin. The contribution of these factors to the pathogenesis of EHEC-induced disease in gnotobiotic piglets(More)
Since October 1992, > 150,000 cases of cholera have been reported from India and Bangladesh; the great majority of Vibrio cholerae isolates belong to the newly established serogroup O139. To better understand the interaction of genetic and epidemiologic factors responsible for their sudden appearance and rapid spread, representative toxigenic V. cholerae(More)
In January 1991, an outbreak of cholera started in Peru and spread throughout most of Latin America within 8 months. As of March 1992, over 450,000 cases and approximately 4,000 deaths have been reported to the Pan American Health Organization. The causative organism is toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 of the El Tor biotype and is distinct from the U.S. Gulf(More)
Yersinia enterocolitica was recently reclassified into Yersinia enterocolitica sensu stricto and three additional species. With this new classification, it was of interest to reexamine pathogenicity previously ascribed to Y. enterocolitica. All available clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica sent to the Centers for Disease Control from 1970 through 1980(More)
This investigation was initiated as a consequence of several cases of diarrhea in a nursery ward for preterm babies in Nairobi, Kenya. Ten lactose-positive colonies were isolated from the stools of each of 30 neonates, regardless of whether they had diarrhea; 229 strains were identified as Escherichia coli and 65 strains were identified as Klebsiella(More)
In September 1983, three clusters of gastrointestinal illness with similar symptoms affected 45 persons in Washington, D.C., after office parties. The illness lasted a mean of 4.4 days and was characterized by watery diarrhea (91%), abdominal cramps (80%), headache (38%), nausea (38%), and subjective fever (20%). Illness was strongly associated with having(More)
The enteropathogenic potential of 32 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates that do not produce cholera toxin was examined in the orally inoculated, sealed adult mouse model. Live cultures (2 x 10(10) cfu/ml) of 7/16 clinical and 6/16 environmental isolates produced a positive intestinal fluid accumulation (FA) ratio that reached near maximum at approximately 5 h(More)
Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was used to examine genetic relationships among and between toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 obtained from patients and the environment in the US Gulf Coast and surrounding areas. A total of 23 toxigenic and 23 non-toxigenic strains were examined. All the toxigenic and 7 of the non-toxigenic(More)