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In the mammalian retina, a small subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are intrinsically photosensitive, express the opsin-like protein melanopsin, and project to brain nuclei involved in non-image-forming visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment. We report that in mice with the melanopsin gene ablated, RGCs(More)
In the mammalian retina, besides the conventional rod-cone system, a melanopsin-associated photoreceptive system exists that conveys photic information for accessory visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photo-entrainment. On ablation of the melanopsin gene, retinal ganglion cells that normally express melanopsin are no longer(More)
BACKGROUND The visual system is now known to be composed of image-forming and non-image-forming pathways. Photoreception for the image-forming pathway begins at the rods and cones, whereas that for the non-image-forming pathway also involves intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which express the photopigment melanopsin. In the mouse(More)
Non-mammalian vertebrates have an intrinsically photosensitive iris and thus a local pupillary light reflex (PLR). In contrast, it is thought that the PLR in mammals generally requires neuronal circuitry connecting the eye and the brain. Here we report that an intrinsic component of the PLR is in fact widespread in nocturnal and crepuscular mammals. In(More)
Cell transplantation is a potential strategy for treating blindness caused by the loss of photoreceptors. Although transplanted rod-precursor cells are able to migrate into the adult retina and differentiate to acquire the specialized morphological features of mature photoreceptor cells, the fundamental question remains whether transplantation of(More)
Biochemical experiments by others have indicated that protein kinase C activity is present in the rod outer segment, with potential or demonstrated targets including rhodopsin, transducin, cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE), guanylate cyclase, and arrestin, all of which are components of the phototransduction cascade. In particular, PKC phosphorylations of(More)
Generation of Trpc7-/-mouse line. Trpc7-/-mice were generated by homologous recombination with a targeting construct to delete a region that includes the TATA box upstream of exon 1 and also exon 1 itself, comprising the untranslated region and the start codon. The removal of this region impairs the start of transcription and the synthesis of the TRPC7(More)
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