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Adverse prenatal environment, such as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), increases the risk for negative neurobehavioral outcomes. IUGR, affecting approximately 10% of all US infants, is a known risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia spectrum disorders and addiction. Mouse dams were fed a protein deficient (8.5%(More)
The central administration of apelin, a recently identified adipokine, has been shown to affect food and water intake. The present study investigated whether body weight could affect an animal's response to apelin. The effects of centrally-administered apelin-13 on food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were investigated in adult male(More)
Social life affects brain function at all levels, including gene expression, neurochemical balance, and neural circuits. We have previously shown that in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni brightly colored, socially dominant (DOM) males face a trade-off between reproductive opportunities and increased predation risk. Compared with camouflaged(More)
Ecological context, sensory inputs, and the internal physiological state are all factors that need to be integrated for an animal to make appropriate behavioral decisions. However, these factors have rarely been studied in the same system. In the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, males alternate between two phenotypes based on position in a social(More)
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