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In brain and other tissues, nitric oxide (NO) operates as a diffusible second messenger that stimulates the soluble form of the guanylyl cylase enzyme and so elicits an accumulation of cGMP in target cells. Inhibitors of NO synthesis have been used to implicate NO in a wide spectrum of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms in the nervous system(More)
1. The L-arginine derivatives NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) have been widely used to inhibit constitutive NO synthase (NOS) in different biological systems. This work was carried out to investigate whether L-NAME is a direct inhibitor of NOS or requires preceding hydrolytic bioactivation to L-NOARG for(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) binds with high affinity to the heme of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), resulting in accumulation of the second messenger cGMP in many biological systems. 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) was recently described as potent and selective inhibitor of sGC, providing an invaluable tool with which to settle the function of the(More)
Various stimulants of the release of EDRF (endothelium-derived relaxing factor) increased intracellular cGMP levels in bovine aortic endothelial cells. ATP was the most effective compound tested, increasing cGMP 7-fold, followed by the calcium ionophore, A23187 (4.8-fold), and bradykinin (4.0-fold). The EC50 values were similar to those obtained when EDRF(More)
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), which catalyze the formation of the ubiquitous biological messenger molecule nitric oxide, represent unique cytochrome P-450s, containing reductase and mono-oxygenase domains within one polypeptide and requiring tetrahydrobiopterin as cofactor. To investigate whether tetrahydrobiopterin functions as an allosteric effector of(More)
We investigated how pH affects rat brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with regard to spin-state equilibrium and the thiolate ligand bond of the haem group, catalytic activity, and monomerleft and right arrow dimer equilibrium. At neutral pH, nNOS containing 1 equiv. of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin (BH4) per dimer was mostly high-spin(More)
The NO concentrations released from donor compounds are difficult to predict as they are determined by formation and inactivation reactions. To calculate the concentrations of NO over time, we have developed a mathematical model which is based on a system of two differential equations describing the first order decomposition of the NO donor in association(More)
Methylene blue appears to inhibit nitric oxide-stimulated soluble guanylyl cyclase and has been widely used for inhibition of cGMP-mediated processes. We report here that endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated blood vessels and NO synthase-dependent cGMP formation in cultured endothelial cells were both markedly more sensitive to inhibition by(More)
Formation of peroxynitrite from NO and O-(*2) is considered an important trigger for cellular tyrosine nitration under pathophysiological conditions. However, this view has been questioned by a recent report indicating that NO and O-(*2) generated simultaneously from (Z)-1-(N-[3-aminopropyl]-N-[4-(3-aminopropylammonio)butyl]-amino) diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate](More)
Vascular relaxation to GTN (nitroglycerin) and other antianginal nitrovasodilators requires bioactivation of the drugs to NO or a related activator of sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase). Conversion of GTN into 1,2-GDN (1,2-glycerol dinitrate) and nitrite by mitochondrial ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2) may be an essential pathway of GTN bioactivation in blood(More)