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Pulmonary function during the early development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants is not well understood. Furthermore, it is not known how early airway reactivity appears in BPD. During a 14-month period we studied 32 infants (mean gestational age, 27.3 wk; mean birth weight, 1.02 kg) with respiratory distress syndrome in whom BPD(More)
Spontaneously occurring augmented breaths (sighs) are common in infants. The pattern of electrical activity of the inspiratory muscles of the thorax and upper airway during augmented breaths, however, has not been fully characterized in this less than fully mature age group. We therefore examined costal and crural diaphragm and external intercostal and(More)
Little is known about the respiratory behavior of the intercostal muscles within a neonatal and developmental context. We, therefore, examined intercostal muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity in kittens (1 month old, n = 8; 2 months old, n = 7) during eupnea and heightened respiratory drive induced by hypercapnia. The kittens were anesthetized with(More)
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and its attendant hypoxemia may place the infant at high risk for hypoxic-ischemic injury. In 19 infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, 16 of whom suffered intrapartum asphyxia, we evaluated a series of electroencephalograms (EEGs) for evidence of major focal cerebral injury, ie,(More)
The effects of acute hypoxia on the recruitment of external intercostal muscle activity were determined in 12 kittens, aged 14 to 36 days. The animals were anesthetized with 1.23 +/- 0.23% halothane and bipolar electrodes were placed in the costal and crural diaphragm and in dorsal external intercostal muscles. Acute hypoxia was induced by the animals(More)
We examined genioglossal and diaphragmatic EMG activities in one- and two-month-old anesthetized kittens during acute exposures to hypoxic (13% or 10% O2) and hyperoxic hypercapnic (8% CO2/50% O2/balanced N2) gas mixtures. Phasic genioglossal EMG activity, frequently characterized by a combined inspiratory-expiratory discharge pattern, was observed in 3 of(More)
Seizures and cerebral infarction were observed in 10 near-term (greater than 36 weeks gestation) and term infants who had experienced moderate to severe peripartum asphyxia which resulted in persistent pulmonary hypertension. No patient received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Eight were outborn. Five patients were diagnosed initially with seizures(More)
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