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Conifers have dominated forests for more than 200 million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. Here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. The number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of Arabidopsis(More)
Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), thought to facilitate evolutionary innovations and adaptations, have been uncovered in many phylogenetic lineages. WGDs are frequently inferred from duplicate age distributions, where they manifest themselves as peaks against a small-scale duplication background. However, the interpretation of duplicate age distributions is(More)
Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion(More)
Gene duplications are believed to facilitate evolutionary innovation. However, the mechanisms shaping the fate of duplicated genes remain heavily debated because the molecular processes and evolutionary forces involved are difficult to reconstruct. Here, we study a large family of fungal glucosidase genes that underwent several duplication events. We(More)
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major mechanism for eukaryotic plasma membrane-based proteome turn-over. In plants, clathrin-mediated endocytosis is essential for physiology and development, but the identification and organization of the machinery operating this process remains largely obscure. Here, we identified an eight-core-component protein(More)
Genome sequencing has demonstrated that besides frequent small-scale duplications, large-scale duplication events such as whole genome duplications (WGDs) are found on many branches of the evolutionary tree of life. Especially in the plant lineage, there is evidence for recurrent WGDs, and the ancestor of all angiosperms was in fact most likely a polyploid(More)
Seagrasses colonized the sea on at least three independent occasions to form the basis of one of the most productive and widespread coastal ecosystems on the planet. Here we report the genome of Zostera marina (L.), the first, to our knowledge, marine angiosperm to be fully sequenced. This reveals unique insights into the genomic losses and gains involved(More)
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