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Source current estimation from MEG measurement is an ill-posed problem that requires prior assumptions about brain activity and an efficient estimation algorithm. In this article, we propose a new hierarchical Bayesian method introducing a hierarchical prior that can effectively incorporate both structural and functional MRI data. In our method, the(More)
Intracortical connectivity was studied in slice preparations of cat's visual cortex by spike-triggered averaging. The experiments documented the unitary postsynaptic potentials underlying the inhibitory and excitatory connections from layer III-IV border cells to supragranular cells, as demonstrated previously by cross-correlation studies. In addition the(More)
It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns(More)
The formation of specific neural connections in the cerebral cortex was studied using organotypic coculture preparations composed of subcortical and cortical regions. Morphological and electrophysiological analysis indicated that several cortical efferent and afferent connections, such as the corticothalamic, thalamocortical, corticocortical, and(More)
Neural connections were established in cocultures of rat visual cortex (VC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), which were isolated in early infancy. Morphological and electrophysiological studies showed that the cortical laminar organization of afferent and efferent connections in the coculture preparations was similar to that in the adult VC. The(More)
The central nervous system of persons with Down syndrome presents cytoarchitectural abnormalities that likely result from gene-dosage effects affecting the expression of key developmental genes. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the transcriptome of the cerebellum of the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome during postnatal development using(More)
Humans can acquire appropriate behaviors that maximize rewards on a trial-and-error basis. Recent electrophysiological and imaging studies have demonstrated that neural activity in the midbrain and ventral striatum encodes the error of reward prediction. However, it is yet to be examined whether the striatum is the main locus of reward-based behavioral(More)
The role of inhibitory Golgi cells in cerebellar function was investigated by selectively ablating Golgi cells expressing human interleukin-2 receptor alpha subunit in transgenic mice, using the immunotoxin-mediated cell targeting technique. Golgi cell disruption caused severe acute motor disorders. These mice showed gradual recovery but retained a(More)