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Immunocytochemistry was used to study the expressions of glutamate receptor subunit proteins for NMDAR2A/B, NMDAR1 splice variants, and AMPA Glu-R2/3 in human brain resected for intractable epilepsy associated with cortical dysplasia. NMDAR2A/B intensely labeled dysplastic neurons showing staining in both the cell bodies and dendritic profiles. However,(More)
In human hippocampal epilepsy, there is a consistent pathology of cell loss and reactive synaptic reorganization of 'excitatory' mossy fibers (MF) into the inner molecular layer (IML) of the fascia dentata (FD). In this study, neo-Timm's histochemistry of MFs and immunocytochemistry of GluR1 were used to determine, in patients with or without hippocampal(More)
Gene expression can be manipulated by the introduction of a hybrid gene formed by linking a highly tissue-specific regulatory element to a gene whose expression might be expected to alter cellular function. Previously, we have shown that the human FGF1 gene contains four distinct tissue-specific promoters. In an effort to perturb the programming of(More)
We now know that fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) transcription is controlled by at least four distinct promoters in a tissue-specific manner. Thus, promoter 1.A is active in the kidney, 1.B in the brain, and 1.C and 1.D in a variety of cultured cells including vascular smooth muscle cells. These promoters are separated from each other by up to 70 kbp.(More)
Four distinct promoters (1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D) of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), spaced up to 70 kilobase pairs apart, direct the expression of alternatively spliced transcript variants (FGF1.A, -1. B, -1.C, and -1.D) that encode FGF1. These FGF1 transcripts can be detected in cultured cells as well as in normal and diseased tissues. These transcripts are(More)
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