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The middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) areas of the macaque cortex have many cells that respond to straight movements in the frontoparallel plane with directional selectivity (D cells). We examined their responses to movements of a bar, of a wide dot pattern, and to combined movements of the two in anesthetized and immobilized animals.(More)
Extracellular levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the nervous system are maintained by transporters that actively remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Homozygous mice deficient in GLT-1, a widely distributed astrocytic glutamate transporter, show lethal spontaneous seizures and increased susceptibility to acute cortical injury.(More)
Using anesthetized and paralyzed monkeys, we have studied the visual response properties of neurons in the cortical area surrounding the middle temporal area (MT) in the superior temporal sulcus (STS). Systematic electrode penetrations revealed that there is a functionally distinct region where three classes of directionally selective cells with large(More)
1. To infer relative roles of cortical areas at different stages of the ventral visual pathway, we quantitatively examined visual responses of cells in V2, V4, the posterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (posterior IT), and the anterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (anterior IT), using anesthetized macaque monkeys. 2. The critical feature for the(More)
1. The dorsal part of the medial superior temporal area (MST) is characterized by clusters of three types of visually responsive cells: Direction cells, which respond to a straight frontoparallel movement in a particular direction; Expansion/contraction cells, which selectively respond to either an expansion or contraction; and Rotation cells, which(More)
The proteasome is an essential component of the ATP-dependent proteolytic pathway in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for the degradation of most cellular proteins. The 20S (700-kDa) proteasome contains multiple peptidase activities that function through a new type of proteolytic mechanism involving a threonine active site. The 26S (2000-kDa) complex,(More)
1. The inferotemporal cortex (IT) has been thought to play an essential and specific role in visual object discrimination and recognition, because a lesion of IT in the monkey results in a specific deficit in learning tasks that require these visual functions. To understand the cellular basis of the object discrimination and recognition processes in IT, we(More)
1. Object vision is largely invariant to changes of retinal images of objects in size and position. To reveal neuronal mechanisms of this invariance, we recorded activities from single cells in the anterior part of the inferotemporal cortex (anterior IT), determined the critical features for the activation of individual cells, and examined the effects of(More)
At early stages of the mammalian visual cortex, neurons with similar stimulus selectivities are vertically arrayed through the thickness of the cortical sheet and clustered in patches or bands across the surface. This organization, referred to as a 'column', has been found with respect to one-dimensional stimulus parameters such as orientation of stimulus(More)
Bone resorption is regulated by the immune system, where T-cell expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand), a member of the tumour-necrosis factor family that is essential for osteoclastogenesis, may contribute to pathological conditions, such as autoimmune arthritis. However, whether activated T cells maintain bone(More)