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Alcohol treatment results in increases in the release of endotoxin from gut bacteria and membrane permeability of the gut to endotoxin, or both. Females are more sensitive to these changes. Elevated levels of endotoxin activate Kupffer cells to release substances such as eicosanoids, TNF-alpha and free radicals. Prostaglandins increase oxygen uptake and(More)
The purine nucleotide cycle enzyme AMP deaminase (AMPD) catalyzes the irreversible hydrolytic deamination of AMP. The physiological function of the purine nucleotide cycle in the brain is unknown. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemical studies were performed to identify the regional and cellular expression of AMPD in rat brain with the goal of(More)
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