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The predominant mode of growth of bacteria in the environment is within sessile, matrix-enclosed communities known as biofilms. Biofilms often complicate chronic and difficult-to-treat infections by protecting bacteria from the immune system, decreasing antibiotic efficacy, and dispersing planktonic cells to distant body sites. While the biology of(More)
The RNA-binding protein CsrA represses biofilm formation, while the non-coding RNAs CsrB and CsrC activate this process by sequestering CsrA. We now provide evidence that the pgaABCD transcript, required for the synthesis of the polysaccharide adhesin PGA (poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine) of Escherichia coli, is the key target of biofilm regulation by(More)
The carbon storage regulatory system of Escherichia coli controls the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cell motility. CsrA binding to glgCAP transcripts inhibits glycogen metabolism by promoting glgCAP mRNA decay. CsrB RNA functions as an antagonist of CsrA by sequestering this protein and preventing its action. In this paper, we(More)
Small untranslated RNAs (sRNAs) perform a variety of important functions in bacteria. The 245 nucleotide sRNA of Escherichia coli, CsrC, was discovered using a genetic screen for factors that regulate glycogen biosynthesis. CsrC RNA binds multiple copies of CsrA, a protein that post-transcriptionally regulates central carbon flux, biofilm formation and(More)
The global regulator CsrA (carbon storage regulator) is an RNA binding protein that coordinates central carbon metabolism, activates flagellum biosynthesis and motility, and represses biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. CsrA activity is antagonized by the untranslated RNA CsrB, to which it binds and forms a globular ribonucleoprotein complex. CsrA(More)
The pathological alterations in upper motor neurons were investigated in 27 cases of adult-onset sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). No signficant cytoskeletal alterations were found in the Betz cells of any of the cases except one, although cytoskeletal pathology was consistently present in lower motor neurons. The one case had severe(More)
In Escherichia coli, the global regulatory protein CsrA (carbon store regulator A) binds to leader segments of target mRNAs, affecting their translation and stability. CsrA activity is regulated by two noncoding RNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which act by sequestering multiple CsrA dimers. Here, we describe a protein (CsrD) that controls the degradation of CsrB/C(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has only one putative gene (designated CPL1) for a cysteine protease with a protease domain similar to that of calpain. This gene product shows significant sequence similarity to PalBp, a fungal (Emericella nidulans) calpain-like protease that is responsible for adaptation under alkaline conditions, both in the protease domain and(More)
Insulin secretion and islet glucose metabolism were compared in pancreatic islets isolated from GK/Wistar (GK) rats with spontaneous Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and control Wistar rats. Islet insulin content was 24.5±3.1 μU/ng islet DNA in GK rats and 28.8±2.5 μU/ng islet DNA in control rats, with a mean (±SEM) islet DNA content of(More)
Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a cholesterol storage disease with defects in the intracellular trafficking of exogenous cholesterol derived from low density lipoproteins. In NPC cases with a chronic progressive course, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that consist of paired helical filaments (PHFs) have been reported. To determine if NPC tangles contain(More)