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Note: The following text was prepared in response to the present discussion regarding the European Commission's recommendations on the so called ''endocrine disrupting chemicals'' and is supported by the editors and associate editors of Toxicology in Vitro, Bas Blaauboer, It also refers to a letter sent in response to these recommendations and that was(More)
Oxidative stress may be an important factor in several pathological brain conditions. A contributing factor in many such conditions is excessive glutamate release, and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation, that causes increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and neuronal damage. Glutamate release is(More)
Effects of an excitatory amino acid, glutamate, and of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists on the levels of free intracellular calcium, and their specific receptor binding in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were studied. The calcium response was always biphasic, except for AMPA, suggesting both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Stimulation of brain cholinergic muscarinic receptors (mAChR) cause persistent tonic-clonic convulsions. mAChRs are coupled to G-protein which mediates the receptor stimulation to phospholipidase C (PLC). PLC hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI), a membrane(More)
BACKGROUND Nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are here to stay. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to environmental particulate matter exacerbates symptoms of asthma. In the present study we investigated the modulatory effects of titanium dioxide particle exposure in an experimental allergic asthma. METHODS Nonallergic (healthy) and(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) represent a great promise for technological and industrial development but serious concerns on their health effects have also emerged. Rod-shaped CNT are, in fact, able to induce asbestos-like pathogenicity in mice including granuloma formation in abdominal cavity and sub-pleural fibrosis. Exposure to CNT, especially in the(More)
Increased glutamate release is associated with serious neurological disorders such as epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and other brain injuries. Excessive glutamate release and subsequent glutamatergic neuronal stimulation increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn induce oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and neuronal(More)
The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be subjected to the well-evaluated health risk characterization(More)
94 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme identifies chemicals, drugs, mixtures, occupational exposures, lifestyles and personal habits, and physical and biological agents that cause cancer in humans and has evaluated about 1000 agents since 1971. Monographs are written by ad hoc Working Groups (WGs) of international(More)
Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1) is a mycotoxin produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, which commonly infects corn and other agricultural products. Fusarium species can also be found in moisture-damaged buildings, and therefore there may also be human exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins, including FB 1. FB 1 is known to affect the metabolism of sphingolipids by(More)