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When task instructions are given, the human brain establishes a task set before the task is actually performed. By introducing a delay between the instruction and the task, we have identified the neural correlates of task sets using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects were instructed to remember a sequence of positions or letters, either(More)
Recent studies have shown that frontoparietal cortices and interconnecting regions in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are related to motor skill learning. We propose that motor skill learning occurs independently and in different coordinates in two sets of loop circuits: cortex-basal ganglia and cortex-cerebellum. This architecture accounts for the(More)
When humans are engaged in goal-related processing, activity in prefrontal cortex is increased. However, it has remained unclear whether this prefrontal activity encodes a subject's current intention. Instead, increased levels of activity could reflect preparation of motor responses, holding in mind a set of potential choices, tracking the memory of(More)
Motor sequence learning is a process whereby a series of elementary movements is re-coded into an efficient representation for the entire sequence. Here we show that human subjects learn a visuomotor sequence by spontaneously chunking the elementary movements, while each chunk acts as a single memory unit. The subjects learned to press a sequence of 10 sets(More)
How does the brain maintain information in working memory while challenged by incoming distractions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured human brain activity during the memory delay of a spatial working memory task with distraction. We found that, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the magnitude of activity sustained throughout the(More)
To understand the contribution of the human presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in sequential motor behavior, we performed a series of finger key-press experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that each subject had a spontaneous tendency to organize or "chunk" a long sequence into shorter components. We hypothesized that the pre-SMA might have a special role in(More)
Motor sequence learning involves learning of a sequence of effectors with which to execute a series of movements and learning of a sequence of timings at which to execute the movements. In this study, we have segregated the neural correlates of the two learning mechanisms. Moreover, we have found an interaction between the two learning mechanisms in the(More)
There is evidence from neuroimaging that the prefrontal cortex may be involved in establishing task set activity in advance of presentation of the task itself. To find out whether it plays an essential role, we examined patients with unilateral lesions of the rostral prefrontal cortex. They were first instructed as to whether to perform a spatial or a(More)
Prefrontal neurons have been shown to represent task rules. Here we show the mechanisms by which the rule-selective activity in the prefrontal cortex influences subsequent cognitive performance based on that rule. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the frontopolar cortex interacted with posterior areas differently depending on(More)
Verbal information is maintained on-line within working memory by rehearsal. However, we still can recall the verbal information when rehearsal is interrupted. Here we show that this is achieved by reactivation of maintained information. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify brain activation at encoding, during memory(More)