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MOTIVATION Genome sequencing projects and further systematic functional analyses of complete gene sets are producing an unprecedented mass of molecular information for a wide range of model organisms. This provides us with a detailed account of the cell with which we may begin to build models for simulating intracellular molecular processes to predict the(More)
The automation of program development procedures is one of the important subjects to be solved for improving productivity. The documentation of program specification and coding process involve many mechanical operations. Presently, however, they are done mostly by human efforts. This greatly hinders the improvement of both productivity and program quality.(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP(More)
Schwannomas are rarely located in the pelvis. A 54-year-old woman was found incidentally to have a tumor in the abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined, heterogeneous tumor, 5 cm in diameter, in the pelvic cavity. With a diagnosis of a mesenteric tumor, a laparoscopic procedure was performed.(More)
BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients have an increased risk of colorectal dysplasia and carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical features and surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis associated with dysplasia or carcinoma. METHODS We operated on 41 UC patients since April 2000. Twelve of the cases were associated with(More)
Although runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) has been considered a determinant of cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), some CCD patients were free of RUNX2 mutations. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (Cebpb) is a key factor of Runx2 expression and our previous study has reported two CCD signs including hyperdontia and elongated coronoid process of the(More)
We used mandible specimens including living and fossil species deposited in the California at Berkeley. Because we focused on molar and cusp sizes, we used specimens in which all lower molars and their carnassials were not worn out. Dietary information (electronic supplementary material, table S1) is cited from the literatures [52–77]. While dietary(More)
Supernumerary teeth and tooth agenesis are common morphological anomalies in humans. We previously obtained evidence that supernumerary maxillary incisors form as a result of the successive development of the rudimentary maxillary incisor tooth germ in Usag-1 null mice. The development of tooth germs is arrested in Runx2 null mice, and such mice also(More)
Wnt5a and Mrfzb1 genes are involved in the regulation of tooth size, and their expression levels are similar to that of Bmp7 during morphogenesis, including during the cap and early bell stages of tooth formation. We previously reported that Usag-1-deficient mice form supernumerary maxillary incisors. Thus, we hypothesized that BMP7 and USAG-1 signaling(More)