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The earliest cell fate decision in the mammalian embryo separates the extra-embryonic trophoblast lineage, which forms the fetal portion of the placenta, from the embryonic cell lineages. The body plan of the embryo proper is established only later at gastrulation, when the pluripotent epiblast gives rise to the germ layers ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.(More)
We describe the use of a DNA construct (named GFP.RN3) encoding green fluorescent protein as a lineage marker for Xenopus embryos. This offers the following advantages over other lineage markers so far used in Xenopus. When injected as synthetic mRNA, its protein emits intense fluorescence in living embryos. It is non-toxic, and the fluorescence does not(More)
The P1 or primary specificity residue of standard mechanism canonical protein inhibitors of serine proteinases, inserts into the S1 primary specificity cavity of the cognate enzyme upon enzyme-inhibitor complex formation. Both natural evolution and protein engineering often change the P1 residue to greatly alter the specificity and the binding strength. To(More)
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory has performed a third science run with much improved sensitivities of all three interferometers. We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of data acquired during this run, used to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We place upper bounds on the energy density stored(More)
Turkey ovomucoid third domain with Leu18 in its reactive site is a potent inhibitor of many serine proteinases: subtilisins, chymotrypsins, and elastases. Previous studies showed that an L18K mutation made it a moderately strong inhibitor of trypsin, while an L18E mutation made it a strong inhibitor of Glu-specific Streptomyces griseus proteinase (GluSGP).(More)
Xenopus blastula cells show a morphogen-like response to activin by expressing different genes according to the concentration of activin to which they are exposed. To understand how cells recognize their position in a concentration gradient, it is essential to know whether each cell responds individually to activin concentration. An alternative idea,(More)
To provide a tool for research on regulating adipocyte differentiation, tetracycline inducible (Tet on) lentiviral expression vectors under the control of an adipose-specific promoter were constructed. The lowest basal expression in the absence of doxycycline and most efficient dose-dependent, doxycycline-induced transient overexpression was observed using(More)
A recently described experimental system for analyzing the mode of action of a morphogen gradient involves the in situ hybridization of sectioned tissue constructs. In these constructs, a source of activin signaling induces the transcription of several mesodermal genes in blastula animal caps, according to the position of cells in a concentration gradient.(More)
A study was conducted to determine the influence of controlled water temperature on growth rate of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after infection with a single, blood-feeding copepod, Lernaeocera branchialis. Initially, uninfected and infected fish were held in ambient seawater (0-10 C) in a raceway and fed to satiation from October to March. In a second trial(More)
Mesoderm formation is the first major differentiative event in vertebrate development. Many new mesoderm-specific genes have recently been described in the mouse, chick, frog and fish and belong to classes comprising T-domain genes, homeobox genes and those encoding secreted proteins. The T-domain genes have different but overlapping expression patterns(More)