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Homocysteine (Hcy), a neurotoxic amino acid, is a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that group I metabotropic glutamate receptors along with N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors participate in acute and chronic aspects of Hcy-induced neuronal damage. In the present study, we examined whether the(More)
BACKGROUND Primary cultures of embryonic neurons have been used to introduce a model of neurons in physiological and pathological conditions. However, age-related cellular events limit this method as an optimal model in adult neurodegenerative diseases studies. Besides, short-interval changing media in previous cultures decreases the effectiveness of this(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) and neuronal loss, particularly in the hippocampus. Direct central administration of this peptide was suggested as a route to create an animal model of AD. Although there are some studies indicating that a single dose of Aβ induces AD-like learning and memory impairment, this model(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important intercellular messenger in the control of physiologic functions. It is synthesized by 3 different nitric oxide synthase enzymes (NOS). Uses of non-selective NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) have shown that NO is involved in neuronal plasticity and memory. This study aimed to determine the differential role of NO in spatial memory(More)
PURPOSE Oxidative stress and renin- angiotensin system are both involved in the pathophysiology of most of the systemic and central disorders as well as in aging. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, well known for their cardiovascular beneficial effects, have also shown antioxidant properties in pathologic conditions. This study aimed to(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular deposits of beta amyloid (Aβ) and neuronal loss particularly in the hippocampus. Accumulating evidences have implied that insulin signaling impairment plays a key role in the pathology of AD; as much as it is considered as type 3 Diabetes. MAPKs are a group of(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder with progressive neurodegeneration associated with aging and is characterized by fibrillar beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in the brain. Although the increased production of Abeta seems to play a noticeable role in AD pathogenesis and its progression, all the mechanisms which are involved in this extracellular(More)
Ketamine, a non-selective inhibitor of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) channels is used in anesthetic or sub-anesthetic doses to induce analgesia, amnesia, to suppress fear, anxiety and depression. Although the ketamine's effect on memory acquisition is known, its effects on other aspects of memory are controversial. Morris water maze is a task which assesses(More)
It is not known if insulin prevents Aβ-induced cell death, MAPK, and Akt activity in isolated hippocampal cell culture. This study was aimed to explore the effect of insulin on Aβ-induced cell death and ERK and Akt signaling alteration in isolated hippocampal cell culture. Additionally, it was desirable to assess if there is any interaction between these(More)