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Pancreatic beta-cells and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-secreting neurons both express the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) which is a major target of autoantibodies associated with beta-cell destruction and impairment of GABA-ergic neurotransmitter pathways. The predominant form of GAD in pancreatic beta-cells, GAD65, is synthesized as a soluble(More)
Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are frequent at or before the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We have developed a simple, reproducible, and quantitative immunoprecipitation radioligand assay using as antigen in vitro transcribed and translated [35S]methionine-labeled human islet GAD65. By using this assay, 77% (77 of(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The cytokine interleukin 1 inhibits insulin release and is selectively cytotoxic to beta-cells in isolated pancreatic rat islets. The antigen(s) triggering the immune response as well as the intracellular mechanisms of action of(More)
The GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD is a prominent islet cell autoantigen in type I diabetes. The two forms of GAD (GAD64 and GAD67) are encoded by different genes in both rats and humans. By in situ hybridization analysis of rat and human pancreases, expression of both genes was detected in rat islets, whereas only GAD64 mRNA was detected in human islets.(More)
The 64-kDa pancreatic beta-cell autoantigen, which is a target of autoantibodies associated with early as well as progressive stages of beta-cell destruction, resulting in insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) in humans, has been identified as the gamma-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. We have identified two autoantigenic forms(More)
Phenolic additives widely used for the preservation of insulin preparations can have a profound effect on the hormone's conformation in solution. m-Cresol, for instance, increases the circular dichroism in the far ultraviolet by 10-20%, corresponding to an increase in helix, and around 255 nm. The CD-spectral changes are strikingly similar to those brought(More)
The enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase is a major autoantigen of the beta cell. Autoantibodies against this enzyme are observed before the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in man and may be of predictive value. There is evidence that this enzyme is involved in the development of autoimmune diabetes in animals. In order to facilitate the(More)
Based upon in vivo rat experiments it was recently suggested that interleukin 1 in the circulation may be implicated in the initial events of beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. The aim of the present study was to estimate half-lives of distribution (T1/2 alpha) and elimination phases (T1/2 beta) of human(More)
A new approach for the identification of ligands for the purification of pharmaceutical proteins by affinity chromatography is described. The technique involves four steps. Selection of an appropriate site on the target protein, design of a complementary ligand compatible with the three-dimensional structure of the site, construction of a limited(More)
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an important autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but little is known about its regulation and function in islet cells. We investigated the effects of the GABA-transaminase inhibitor gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG) on GAD expression in rat islets and brain in vitro and in vivo. In islets incubated in high(More)