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Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are frequent at or before the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We have developed a simple, reproducible, and quantitative immunoprecipitation radioligand assay using as antigen in vitro transcribed and translated [35S]methionine-labeled human islet GAD65. By using this assay, 77% (77 of(More)
The 64-kDa pancreatic beta-cell autoantigen, which is a target of autoantibodies associated with early as well as progressive stages of beta-cell destruction, resulting in insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) in humans, has been identified as the gamma-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. We have identified two autoantigenic forms(More)
Pancreatic beta-cells and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-secreting neurons both express the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) which is a major target of autoantibodies associated with beta-cell destruction and impairment of GABA-ergic neurotransmitter pathways. The predominant form of GAD in pancreatic beta-cells, GAD65, is synthesized as a soluble(More)
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is caused by an autoimmune destruction of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. The cytokine interleukin 1 inhibits insulin release and is selectively cytotoxic to beta-cells in isolated pancreatic rat islets. The antigen(s) triggering the immune response as well as the intracellular mechanisms of action of(More)
Based on studies in spontaneously non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, it has been suggested that the Mr 65,000 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) is of major importance in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In humans, antibodies to GAD65 are present before and at onset of the disease and in vitro T cell reactivity to GAD(More)
Recombinant human interleukin 1 beta (rhIL-1 beta) and supernatants of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides-stimulated human monocyte (Mo) cultures, containing native human IL-1 beta (nhIL-1 beta), demonstrate significant differences when tested in the mouse co-stimulatory thymocyte (lymphocyte activating factor [LAF]) assay. The aims of the present study(More)
Based upon in vivo rat experiments it was recently suggested that interleukin 1 in the circulation may be implicated in the initial events of beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. The aim of the present study was to estimate half-lives of distribution (T1/2 alpha) and elimination phases (T1/2 beta) of human(More)
The contribution of glutamate decarboxylase (Mr 65000) antibodies to the reactivity of islet cell cytoplasmic antibodies with the 'whole' islet staining pattern from patients with newly diagnosed Type I diabetes was investigated. Diluted sera (n = 10) were preincubated with increasing concentrations of purified recombinant human islet glutamate(More)
The GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD is a prominent islet cell autoantigen in type I diabetes. The two forms of GAD (GAD64 and GAD67) are encoded by different genes in both rats and humans. By in situ hybridization analysis of rat and human pancreases, expression of both genes was detected in rat islets, whereas only GAD64 mRNA was detected in human islets.(More)
Phenolic additives widely used for the preservation of insulin preparations can have a profound effect on the hormone's conformation in solution. m-Cresol, for instance, increases the circular dichroism in the far ultraviolet by 10-20%, corresponding to an increase in helix, and around 255 nm. The CD-spectral changes are strikingly similar to those brought(More)