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OBJECTIVES To address the practical problems of routine umbilical cord blood sampling, to determine the ranges for pH, PCO2 and base deficit and to examine the relationships of these parameters between cord vessels. DESIGN An observational study of umbilical cord artery and vein blood gas results. SETTING A large district general hospital in the UK. (More)
AIMS it is now recommended that cord blood acid-base measurement is performed routinely at time of delivery in the UK as a measure of fetal response to labour. However, there remains some uncertainty about the value of this procedure. In this paper our experience of cord blood analysis is described and the literature is reviewed to: (1) provide an overview(More)
It is possible to record the fetal electrocardiographic waveform (ECG) from the scalp electrode used in labour for detection of fetal heart rate. Animal and observational studies of changes in the ST waveform of the ECG during hypoxia suggest that a combination of heart rate and ST waveform analysis might improve the predictive value of intrapartum(More)
OBJECT Bolivia, one of the poorest countries in the world, ranks 108th on the 2013 Human Development Index. With approximately 1 neurosurgeon per 200,000 people, access to neurosurgery in Bolivia is a growing health concern. Furthermore, neurosurgery in nonindustrialized countries has been considered both cost-prohibitive and lacking in outcomes evaluation.(More)
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