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A lesser-expressing form of the human 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) gene has been associated with increased fear and anxiety and vulnerability to the effects of stress. These phenotypic abnormalities are linked to functional and anatomical disturbances in a neural pathway connecting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala. Likewise, rodent and nonhuman primate(More)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has a very high heritability (0.8), suggesting that about 80% of phenotypic variance is due to genetic factors. We used the integration of statistical and functional approaches to discover a novel gene that contributes to ADHD. For our statistical approach, we started with a linkage study based on large(More)
In previous studies of a genetic isolate, we identified significant linkage of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to 4q, 5q, 8q, 11q and 17p. The existence of unique large size families linked to multiple regions, and the fact that these families came from an isolated population, we hypothesized that two-locus interaction contributions to ADHD(More)
The phenomenon of adult neurogenesis (AN), that is, the generation of functional neurons from neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, has attracted remarkable attention, especially as it was shown that this process is also active in the human brain. Based on animal studies, it has been suggested that reduced AN is implicated in the(More)
Corticotropin-releasing-factor (CRF) containing systems and monoaminergic afferents of the central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce) are crucial players in central nervous stress responses. For functional analyses of specific roles of these systems, numerous mouse models have been generated which lack or overexpress individual signal transduction components. Since(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous neurotransmitter thought to play important roles in several behavioral domains. On a neurobiological level, NO acts as the second messenger of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and interacts with both the dopaminergic as well as the serotonergic system. Thus, NO is a promising candidate molecule in the pathogenesis of(More)
Although therapeutic interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) still focus on the dopaminergic system, recent studies indicate a serotonergic dysfunction in this disease as well. In that respect, several variants of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH2), which codes for the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin(More)
Rapid uptake of synaptically released glutamate via the high affinity glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1; EAAT2) is important for limiting transmitter signalling and prevents a harmful receptor overstimulation. So far, in the adult brain GLT1 protein has only been detected in astrocytes. Here, we describe the cDNA cloning of a variant of GLT1 from rat brain(More)
We have shown previously that raised levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) during development prevent retinal ganglion cell axons from segregating into eye-specific regions in their principal targets: the superior colliculus and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Possible mediators of 5-HT in this system include its plasma membrane(More)