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INTRODUCTION We reviewed the epidemiology of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Singapore after the 2000 epidemic caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71), with particular reference to the cyclical pattern, predominant circulating enteroviruses and impact of prevention and control measures in preschool centres. MATERIALS AND METHODS We analysed the(More)
Singapore experienced a large epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in 2000. After reviewing HFMD notifications from doctors and child-care centers, we found that the incidence of HFMD rose in September and declined at the end of October. During this period, 3,790 cases were reported. We performed enteroviral cultures on 311 and 157 specimens from(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a frequent cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics associated with severe neurological sequelae in a small proportion of cases. There has been a significant increase in EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. Recent HFMD epidemics in this region have been associated with a severe form of(More)
This study provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) in the Asia-Pacific region from 1997 through 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 and VP1 genes of recent HEV71 strains indicates that several genogroups of the virus have been circulating in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. The first of these(More)
AIM An epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Singapore between September and November 2000. During the epidemic, there were four HFMD-related deaths and after the epidemic, another three HFMD-related deaths. This study sought to determine the risk factors predictive of death from HFMD disease. METHODS The risk factors for fatal HFMD(More)
BACKGROUND We experienced a hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreak in late year 2000 in Singapore. Between 14 September 2000 and 14 November 2000, a total of 3526 cases of HFMD were notified. There were 652 patients clinically suspected to have HFMD, who were seen at the Children's Emergency department of KK Women's and Children's Hospital of(More)
A recent outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Singapore in 2000 affected several thousand children and resulted in four deaths. The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with universal pan-enterovirus primers and enterovirus 71 (EV71) type-specific primers for the direct detection of enteroviruses(More)
AIMS To investigate if two important epidemic viral encephalitis in children, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) encephalomyelitis and Japanese encephalitis (JE) whose clinical and pathological features may be nonspecific and overlapping, could be distinguished. METHODS Tissue sections from the central nervous system of infected cases were examined by light(More)
CONTEXT An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), an infectious disease attributed to a novel coronavirus, occurred in Singapore during the first quarter of 2003 and led to 204 patients with diagnosed illnesses and 26 deaths by May 2, 2003. Twenty-one percent of these patients required admission to the medical intensive care unit. During this(More)