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Formalin-fixed archival samples are known to be poor materials for molecular biological applications. We conducted a series of experiments to understand the alterations in RNA in fixed tissue. We found that formalin-fixed tissue was resistant to solubilization by chaotropic agents. However, proteinase K completely solubilized the fixed tissue and enabled(More)
Increasing evidence suggests the crucial role of estrogen in ovarian differentiation of nonmammalian vertebrates including fish. The present study has investigated the plausible role of Foxl2 in ovarian differentiation through transcriptional regulation of aromatase gene, using monosex fry of tilapia. Foxl2 expression is sexually dimorphic, like Cyp19a1,(More)
The composition of "group B saponin" in soybean seed was analyzed by HPLC, and six kinds of "group B saponin," named Ba, Bb, Bb', Bc, Bd and Be according to elution order from HPLC, were detected. Of these saponins, Ba, Bb, Bb' and Bc were identified with soyasaponin V, I, III and II, respectively. Bd and Be were novel saponins possessing soyasapogenol E as(More)
The variation in saponin composition in soybean seeds is explained by different combinations of five genes controlling the utilization of soyasapogenol glycosides as substrates. The function of these genes is variety-specific and organ-specific. Phenotypes of over 1000 soybeans were classified into eight saponin types, and the frequency of phenotypes was(More)
Large scale sequencing of cDNAs provides a complementary approach to structural analysis of the human genome by generating expressed sequence tags (ESTs). We have initiated the large-scale sequencing of a 3'-directed cDNA library from the human liver cell line HepG2, that is a non-biased representation of the mRNA population. 982 random cDNA clones were(More)
Determination of the mRNA start site is the first step in identifying the promoter region, which is of key importance for transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The 'oligo-capping' method enabled us to introduce a sequence tag to the first base of an mRNA by replacing the cap structure of the mRNA. Using cDNA libraries made from oligo-capped mRNAs,(More)
To understand the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, it is essential to identify and characterize the promoter, which is located proximal to the mRNA start site. To identify the promoters from the large volumes of genomic sequences, we used mRNA start sites determined by a large-scale sequencing of the cDNA libraries constructed by the "oligo-capping"(More)
The neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has a central role in the neural control of vertebrate reproduction. This review describes an overview of what is currently known about GnRH in vertebrates in the context of its structural and functional evolution. A large body of evidence has demonstrated the existence of three paralogous genes for(More)
An appreciation of the biological characteristics of the human ocular surface epithelium affords us a great insight into the physiology of the human ocular surface in health and disease. Here, we review five important aspects of the human ocular surface epithelium. First, we recognize the discovery of corneal epithelial stem cells, and note how the(More)