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We present the results of searches for nucleon decay via n → ¯ νπ 0 and p → ¯ νπ þ using data from a combined 172.8 kt · yr exposure of Super-Kamiokande-I,-II, and-III. We set lower limits on the partial lifetime for each of these modes: τ n→¯ νπ 0 > 1.1 × 10 33 years and τ p→¯ νπ þ > 3.9 × 10 32 years at a 90% confidence level.
A search for the relic neutrinos from all past core-collapse supernovae was conducted using 1496 days of data from the Super-Kamiokande detector. This analysis looked for electron-type anti-neutrinos that had produced a positron with an energy greater than 18 MeV. In the absence of a signal, 90% C.L. upper limits on the total flux were set for several(More)
Neurons in the adult brain have a very complex morphology with many processes, including tremendously long axons. Since dendrites and axons play key roles in the input and output of neural information, respectively, the visualization of complete images of these processes is necessary to reveal the mechanism of neural information processing. Here we made a(More)
Recent studies have shown that multiple brain areas contribute to different stages and aspects of procedural learning. On the basis of a series of studies using a sequence-learning task with trial-and-error, we propose a hypothetical scheme in which a sequential procedure is acquired independently by two cortical systems, one using spatial coordinates and(More)
To study the role of medial frontal cortex in learning and memory of sequential procedures, we examined neuronal activity of the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and supplementary motor area (SMA) while monkeys (n = 2) performed a sequential button press task, "2 x 5 task." In this paradigm, 2 of 16 (4 x 4 matrix) light-emitting diode buttons (called(More)
A new recombinant virus which labeled the infected neurons in a Golgi stain-like fashion was developed. The virus was based on a replication-defective Sindbis virus and was designed to express green fluorescent protein with a palmitoylation signal (palGFP). When the virus was injected into the ventrobasal thalamic nuclei, many neurons were visualized with(More)
1. We examined single-neuronal activity in the temporal pole of monkeys, including the anterior ventromedial temporal (VMT) cortex (the temporopolar cortex, area 36, area 35, and the entorhinal cortex) and the anterior inferotemporal (IT) cortex, during a visual recognition memory task. In the task, a trial began when the monkey pressed a lever. After a(More)
Remarkable human performance, such as playing the violin, is often based on motor skills that, once acquired, are retained for a long time. To examine how motor skills are retained, we trained monkeys and humans extensively to perform many visuomotor sequences and examined their performance after a long retention period of up to 18 months. For both monkeys(More)
We examined the properties of [Ca(2+)](i) changes that were evoked by backpropagating action potentials in pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices from the rat. In the presence of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists t-ACPD, DHPG, or CHPG, spikes caused Ca(2+) waves that initiated in the proximal apical dendrites and spread over this region(More)