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All available colloid volume substitutes carry the risk of anaphylactoid reactions. In a multicentre prospective trial, 69 cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been observed among 200 906 infusions of colloid volume substitutes. The frequency of severe reactions (shock, cardiac and/or respiratory arrest) was 0-003% for plasma-protein solutions, 0-006% for(More)
Growing evidence supports a pathophysiological role for platelets during the manifestation of postischemic reperfusion injury; in the current study, we investigated the nature and the molecular determinants of platelet-endothelial cell interactions induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Platelet-endothelium and leukocyte-endothelium interactions after 1(More)
OBJECTIVE Changes of major cerebral vessels in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are well known from routine cerebral angiography. Data on changes in the microcirculation do not exist. This study sought to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the cortical microcirculation after SAH. METHODS By means of orthogonal polarization(More)
BACKGROUND The concept of small-volume resuscitation (SVR) using hypertonic solutions encompasses the rapid infusion of a small dose (4 ml per kg body weight, i.e. approximately 250 ml in an adult patient) of 7.2-7.5% NaCl/colloid solution. Originally, SVR was aimed for initial therapy of severe hypovolemia and shock associated with trauma. METHODS The(More)
Clinicians lack a practical method for measuring CBF rapidly, repeatedly, and noninvasively at the bedside. A new noninvasive technique for estimation of cerebral hemodynamics by use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and an intravenously infused tracer dye is proposed. Kinetics of the infrared tracer indocyanine green were monitored on the intact skull(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Small-volume resuscitation by means of bolus application of hypertonic saline solutions has been demonstrated to restore central hemodynamics and regional blood flow in severe hemorrhagic and traumatic shock. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential of this new concept for treatment of profound hypovolemia and(More)
BACKGROUND Leukocytes are suggested to modulate ischemia/reperfusion injury via membrane receptor-controlled interaction with the microvascular endothelium. METHODS With the use of intravital fluorescence microscopy we investigated the role of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of hepatic reperfusion injury with a neutralizing(More)
Much clinical and experimental evidence suggests that pancreatic ischaemia in the early phase of acute pancreatitis is important in the development of pancreatic necrosis. While depletion of intravascular volume has often been assumed to be the main circulatory defect, an additional disturbance of pancreatic microcirculation has been demonstrated(More)
To date, most quantitative information on tumor angiogenesis, microcirculation, and transport has been derived from rodent tumors grown in transparent chamber preparations. In this paper we present a chamber technique adapted to immunodeficient mice for the study of human tumor xenografts. Microcirculatory parameters in severe combined immunodeficient mice(More)