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In order to develop noble-metal-and carbon-free cathodes, titanium-niobium oxides were prepared as active materials for oxide-based cathodes and the factors affecting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity were evaluated. The high concentration sol-gel method was employed to prepare the precursor. Heat treatment in Ar containing 4% H2 at 700–900 °C(More)
We discuss random dopant effects in ultra-small MOSFETs associated with quantum confinement effects and contact resistances, along with the separation of impurity number fluctuations and position fluctuations. The contribution ratio of the effect of the channel impurity position fluctuation to the total threshold voltage fluctuation almost reaches 75%,(More)
Random-dopant-induced gate tunneling current fluctuations are studied for the first time. It is shown that gate leakage currents considerably fluctuate among MOSFETs even if there is no gate oxide thickness fluctuation. The physical origin of random-dopant-induced gate tunneling current fluctuations near the stand-by (V<inf>g</inf>&#8776; +0 V) is the(More)
The saturation velocity is one of the most important parameters for simulation of deep submicron nMOSFETs. The saturation velocity is modeled as a function of electron concentration by simulating the same structure as measured resistive gate MOSFETs. The saturation velocity lowering under the strong inversion condition is confirmed in single source/drain(More)
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