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BACKGROUND In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update(More)
Microalbuminuria (MA) is associated with adverse health outcomes in diabetic and hypertensive adults. The prevalence and clinical significance of MA in nondiabetic populations is less clear. The purpose of this study was to generate national estimates of the prevalence of MA in the US population. Untimed urinary albumin concentrations (UACs) and creatinine(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR), vision-threatening DR (VTDR), glaucoma, and cataracts among Americans 40 years or older with diagnosed diabetes mellitus for the years 2005-2050. METHODS Using published prevalence data of DR, VTDR, glaucoma, and cataracts and data from the National Health Interview Survey and the(More)
CONTEXT Prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased dramatically in recent decades, but the magnitude of change in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the growing proportion of overweight and obese Americans remains unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine 40-year trends in CVD risk factors by body mass index (BMI) groups among US adults(More)
BACKGROUND Although the increased prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has been documented, little is known about its incidence. We report here on the national incidence of obesity among elementary-school children. METHODS We evaluated data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, a representative(More)
Although immigrants are a rapidly growing subgroup, little is known about overweight/obesity among the foreign-born in the United States, especially regarding the effect of age at arrival. This study determined whether overweight/obesity prevalence is associated with age at arrival of immigrants to the United States. We analyzed data on 6,421 adult(More)