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We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for(More)
In metazoan oocytes, a metaphase arrest coordinates the completion of meiosis with fertilization. Vertebrate mos maintains the metaphase II arrest of mature oocytes and prevents DNA replication between the meiotic divisions. We identified a Drosophila homolog of mos and showed it to be the mos ortholog by two additional criteria. The dmos transcripts are(More)
During Xenopus development, convergent extension movements mediated by cell intercalation drive axial elongation. While many genes required for convergent extension have been identified, little is known of regulation of the cytoskeleton during these cell movements. Although microtubules are required for convergent extension, this applies only to initial(More)
Optic cup morphogenesis (OCM) generates the basic structure of the vertebrate eye. Although it is commonly depicted as a series of epithelial sheet folding events, this does not represent an empirically supported model. Here, we combine four-dimensional imaging with custom cell tracking software and photoactivatable fluorophore labeling to determine the(More)
During Xenopus gastrulation, the dorsal mesoderm exhibits two different cell behaviors in two different regions: active cell migration of prechordal mesoderm and convergent extension of chordamesoderm. Although many genes involved in specification and differentiation of the dorsal mesoderm have been studied, the role of these genes in controlling cell(More)
The vertebrate eye forms via a complex set of morphogenetic events. The optic vesicle evaginates and undergoes transformative shape changes to form the optic cup, in which neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium enwrap the lens. It has long been known that a complex, glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix layer surrounds the developing optic cup(More)
The in situ staining patterns of Fig 4C and 4D were incorrectly assigned to the nkx2.2 gene of Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Subsequent sequencing and analysis has shown that these images were actually expression patterns for the foxA gene. Fig 4 has been updated with images of the in situ staining patterns of the nkx2.2 gene of Saccoglossus kowalevskii and the(More)
Selecting structures from volume data using direct over-the-visualization interactions, such as a paint brush, is perhaps the most intuitive method in a variety of application scenarios. Unfortunately, it seems difficult to design a universal tool that is effective for all different structures in biology research. In [WOCH12b], an interactive technique was(More)
The vertebrate eye acquires its basic form during the process of optic cup morphogenesis, during which the optic vesicle emerges from the brain neuroepithelium and, through a series of cell and tissue movements, transforms itself into the multilayered optic cup, containing neural retina (comprised of retinal progenitors), retinal pigmented epithelium, and(More)
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