K. Kapp

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Estimating switching activity is a crucial step in optimizing circuits for low power. In this paper, a fast gate level switching activity estimator for combinational circuits will be presented. The combination of event driven and bitparallel simulation allows for high accuracy due to the real delay model of the former while maintaining the speedup of the(More)
Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on the small (S) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible strategies to improve the efficacy of HBV vaccines. Here,(More)
The tumor vaccine MGN1601 was designed and developed for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MGN1601 consists of a combination of fourfold gene-modified cells with the toll-like receptor 9 agonist dSLIM, a powerful connector of innate and adaptive immunity. Vaccine cells originate from a renal cell carcinoma cell line (grown from renal cell(More)
Toll-like receptors are sensing modulators of the innate immune system. One member of this protein family, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9, is increasingly being investigated as therapeutic target for infectious diseases and cancer. Double-Stem Loop ImmunoModulator (dSLIM) is a new TLR-9 agonist in clinical development for patients with metastatic colorectal(More)
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