K. K. Siu

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Computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are the mainstays of clinical pulmonary assessment. Spirometry is effort dependent and only provides a single global measure that is insensitive for regional disease, and as such, poor for capturing the early onset of lung disease, especially patchy disease such as cystic fibrosis lung disease. CT sensitively measures(More)
Randomised error seeding is a technique which can be used to evaluate the ability of language processors to detect and report errors in source programs. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed, and various strategies for using it presented. The lessons learned from experiments in using it on selected Pascal and Prolog systems are(More)
The human APOBEC3 family of DNA cytosine deaminases serves as a front-line intrinsic immune response to inhibit the replication of diverse retroviruses. APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are the most potent factors against HIV-1. As a countermeasure, HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) targets APOBEC3s for proteasomal degradation. Here we report the crystal structure(More)
During breathing, lung inflation is a dynamic process involving a balance of mechanical factors, including trans-pulmonary pressure gradients, tissue compliance and airway resistance. Current techniques lack the capacity for dynamic measurement of ventilation in vivo at sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to allow the spatio-temporal patterns of(More)
High resolution in vivo velocity measurements within the cardiovascular system are essential for accurate calculation of vessel wall shear stress, a highly influential factor for the progression of arterial disease. Unfortunately, currently available techniques for in vivo imaging are unable to provide the temporal resolution required for velocity(More)
Since lung diseases adversely affect airflow during breathing, they must also alter normal lung motion, which can be exploited to detect these diseases. However, standard imaging techniques such as CT and MRI imaging during breath-holds provide little or no information on lung motion and cannot detect diseases that cause subtle changes in lung structure.(More)
Conodonts have been considered the earliest skeletonizing vertebrates and their mineralized feeding apparatus interpreted as having performed a tooth function. However, the absence of jaws in conodonts and the small size of their oropharyngeal musculature limits the force available for fracturing food items, presenting a challenge to this interpretation. We(More)
Marsupials are born with immature lungs when compared to eutherian mammals and rely, to various extents, on cutaneous gas exchange in order to meet metabolic requirements. Indeed, the fat-tailed dunnart is born with lungs in the canalicular stage of development and relies almost entirely on the skin for gas exchange at birth; consequently undergoing the(More)
To determine the efficacy of potential cystic fibrosis (CF) therapies we have developed a novel mucociliary transit (MCT) measurement that uses synchrotron phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI) to non-invasively measure the transit rate of individual micron-sized particles deposited into the airways of live mice. The aim of this study was to image changes in(More)