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To better understand the neurotoxic effects of diverse hazards on the developing human nervous system, researchers and clinicians rely on data collected from a number of model species that develop and mature at varying rates. We review the methods commonly used to extrapolate the timing of brain development from experimental mammalian species to humans,(More)
Biomedical researchers and medical professionals are regularly required to compare a vast quantity of neurodevelopmental literature obtained from an assortment of mammals whose brains grow at diverse rates, including fast developing experimental rodent species and slower developing humans. In this article, we introduce a database-driven website, which was(More)
OBJECTIVE To study whether the mode of delivery alters pain expression. STUDY DESIGN Full-term infants born by vaginal delivery or elective caesarean section were observed following high- and low-intensity pain stimuli, with recording of electrocardiogram, facial expression and vocalization. RESULT Graded physiological and behavioral responses occurred,(More)
Optimal analgesia remains a major challenge for all involved in the care of (critically) ill newborns. The rapid changes in liver metabolism involving maturation of liver enzymes and renal clearance of drugs render (extreme) very low birth weight infants different from newborns of later postconceptional age with regards to the use of opioids such as(More)
Although over 40 methods of pain assessment in infants are available for use in clinical practice, unrecognized and under-treated pain remains one of the most commonly reported problems within the Neonatal Intensive Care Units. A number of factors have been found to account for differences in the robustness of the pain response in neonates of varying(More)
The anatomic and physiological bases for nociception are present even in very preterm neonates. Neonates show the same behavioral, endocrine, and metabolic responses to noxious stimuli as older subjects. Preterm infants appear to be more sensitive to painful stimuli and have heightened responses to successive stimuli. Infants receiving intensive care are(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate clinical variables such as gestational age, sex, weight, the therapeutic regimens used and mechanical ventilation that might affect morphine requirements and plasma concentrations of morphine and its metabolites. METHODS In a double-blind study, neonates and infants stratified for age [group I 0-4 weeks (neonates), group II > or(More)
Children aged 0-3 yr were stratified for age and randomized to receive either continuous morphine (CM, 10 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) with three-hourly placebo boluses or intermittent morphine (IM, 30 microg x kg(-1) every 3 h) with a placebo infusion for postoperative analgesia. Plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin, glucose and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine current practices for the use of analgesia term and preterm neonates cared for in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). DESIGN One-week survey of medical charts of current patients. SETTING NICUs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS A total of 14 of 38 invited NICUs participated. These units were not different on number of beds, admissions(More)
Significant progress in understanding the physiology, clinical correlates, and consequences of neonatal pain have resulted in greater attention to pain management during neonatal intensive care. A number of nonpharmacological therapies have been investigated, including nonnutritive sucking, with and without sucrose use, swaddling or facilitated tucking,(More)