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Phytase catalyses the release of phosphate from phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), the predominant form of phosphorus in cereal grains, oilseeds and legumes. The presence of phytase activity was investigated in 334 strains of 22 species of obligately anaerobic ruminal bacteria. Measurable activities were demonstrated in strains of Selenomonas(More)
In a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment, six heifers (443 +/- 6.1 kg) fed a 61% barley grain:39% alfalfa silage diet (DM basis) were given intraruminal doses of powdered Yucca schidigera (YS). Doses of 0 (control), 20, or 60 g/d were given at 0800 daily. Ruminal content was sampled 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after dosing. Acidity, concentrations of reducing(More)
Direct microscopic examination of the rumen and its contents shows microbial populations largely attached to feed particles in the digesta. Most feeds contain a surface layer that is resistant to attachment and therefore to digestion. Infiltration of these recalcitrant epidermal layers through damage sites or through focused enzymatic attack is essential(More)
The effect of site of supplementation of a mixture of two crude preparations (Enzyme C and Enzyme X) of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (EPDE) was studied in vivo using four ruminally and duodenally cannulated heifers (Exp. 1). The treatments were as follows: control (no EPDE), EPDE supplied through the diet (EF, 47.0 g/d), and EPDE infused(More)
Differential agar media for the detection of microbial phytase activity use the disappearance of precipitated calcium or sodium phytate as an indication of enzyme activity. When this technique was applied to the study of ruminal bacteria, it became apparent that the method was unable to differentiate between phytase activity and acid production. Strong(More)
The catalytic domain of a xylanase from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum was made more alkalophilic through directed evolution using error-prone PCR. Transformants expressing the alkalophilic variant xylanases produced larger clear zones when overlaid with high pH, xylan-containing agar. Eight amino acid substitutions were identified in six(More)
Increasing competition in the livestock industry has forced producers to cut costs by adopting new technologies aimed at increasing production efficiency. One particularly promising technology is feeding enzymes as supplements for animal diets. Supplementation of diets for non-ruminants (e.g., swine and poultry) with fibrolytic enzymes, such as cellulases,(More)