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The unique metabolic profile of cancer (aerobic glycolysis) might confer apoptosis resistance and be therapeutically targeted. Compared to normal cells, several human cancers have high mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and low expression of the K+ channel Kv1.5, both contributing to apoptosis resistance. Dichloroacetate (DCA) inhibits(More)
Calyculin A and okadaic acid induce contraction in smooth muscle fibers. Okadaic acid is an inhibitor of phosphatase activity and the aims of this study were to determine if calyculin A also inhibits phosphatase and to screen effects of both compounds on various phosphatases. Neither compound inhibited acid or alkaline phosphatases, nor the phosphotyrosine(More)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the human digestive tract, but their molecular etiology and cellular origin are unknown. Sequencing of c-kit complementary DNA, which encodes a proto-oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT), from five GISTs revealed mutations in the region between the transmembrane and(More)
The spontaneous recessive mutant mouse stargazer (stg) begins to show ataxia around postnatal day 14 and display a severe impairment in the acquisition of classical eyeblink conditioning in adulthood. These abnormalities have been attributed to the specific reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the subsequent defect in TrkB receptor(More)
To study the function of GLAST, a glutamate transporter highly expressed in the cerebellar Bergmann astrocytes, the mouse GLAST gene was inactivated. GLAST-deficient mice developed normally and could manage simple coordinated tasks, such as staying on a stationary or a slowly rotating rod, but failed more challenging task such as staying on a quickly(More)
Climbing fiber (CF) synapse formation onto cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) is critically dependent on the synaptogenesis from parallel fibers (PFs), the other input to PCs. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the glutamate receptor delta2 subunit (GluRdelta2) gene results in persistent multiple CF innervation of PCs with impaired PF synaptogenesis,(More)
Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of(More)
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is initiated by inhibition of O2-sensitive, voltage-gated (Kv) channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Kv inhibition depolarizes membrane potential (E(M)), thereby activating Ca2+ influx via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. HPV is weak in extrapulmonary, conduit pulmonary arteries (PA) and strong in(More)
BACKGROUND Alveolar hypoxia acutely elicits pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Chronic hypoxia (CH), despite attenuating HPV, causes pulmonary hypertension (CH-PHT). HPV results, in part, from inhibition of O2-sensitive, voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). CH decreases Kv channel current/expression and(More)
PKC gamma is highly expressed in Purkinje cells (PCs) but not in other types of neurons in the cerebellum. The expression of PKC gamma changes markedly during cerebellar development, being very low at birth and reaching a peak around the third postnatal week. This temporal pattern of PKC gamma expression coincides with the developmental transition from(More)