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We constructed a library of synthetic promoters for Lactococcus lactis in which the known consensus sequences were kept constant while the sequences of the separating spacers were randomized. The library consists of 38 promoters which differ in strength from 0.3 up to more than 2,000 relative units, the latter among the strongest promoters known for this(More)
Two mutant strains of Lactococcus lactis in which the promoter of the las operon, harboring pfk, pyk, and ldh, were replaced by synthetic promoters were constructed. These las mutants had an approximately twofold decrease in the activity of phosphofructokinase, whereas the activities of pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the(More)
Regulation of gene expression can be analyzed by a number of different techniques. Some techniques monitor the level of specific mRNA directly, and others monitor indirectly by determining the level of enzymes encoded by the mRNA. Each method has its own inherent way of normalization. When results obtained by these techniques are compared between(More)
In this work, the phage-encoded proteins involved in site-specific excision of the prophage genome of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 were identified. The phage integrase is required for the process, and a low but significant frequency of excision is observed when the integrase is the only phage protein present. However, 100% excision is(More)
The four genes pyrR, pyrP, pyrB, and carA were found to constitute an operon in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363. The functions of the different genes were established by mutational analysis. The first gene in the operon is the pyrimidine regulatory gene, pyrR, which is responsible for the regulation of the expression of the pyrimidine biosynthetic(More)
In the genome of the gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis MG1363, we have identified three genes (clpC, clpE, and clpB) which encode Clp proteins containing two conserved ATP binding domains. The proteins encoded by two of the genes belong to the previously described ClpB and ClpC families. The clpE gene, however, encodes a member of a new Clp protein(More)
The induction of the heat shock response in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain MG1363 was analysed at the RNA level using a novel RNA isolation procedure to prevent degradation. Cloning of the dnaJ and groEL homologues was carried out. Northern blot analysis showed a similar induction pattern for dnaK, dnaJ and groELS after transfer from 30 degrees C(More)
Transcriptional analysis by Northern blotting identified clusters of early, middle and late transcribed regions of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 during one-step growth experiments. The latent period was found to be 65 min and the burst size 40 +/- 10. The eight early transcripts, all mapping in a 13 kb region adjacent to the attachment(More)
Three genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines have been found to constitute an operon in Lactococcus lactis. Two of the genes are the well-known pyr genes pyrDb and pyrF, encoding dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase, respectively. The third gene encodes a protein which was shown to be necessary(More)
The biosynthesis of carbamoylphosphate is catalyzed by the heterodimeric enzyme carbamoylphosphate synthetase. The genes encoding the two subunits of this enzyme in procaryotes are normally transcribed as an operon, but the gene encoding the large subunit (carB) in Lactococcus lactis is shown to be transcribed as an isolated unit. Carbamoylphosphate is a(More)