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A variety of human cell types, including human osteoblasts (hOBs), produce an IGFBP-4 protease, which cleaves IGFBP-4 in the presence of IGF-II. Recently, the pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A has been determined to be the IGF-II-dependent IGFBP-4 protease produced by human fibroblasts. This study sought to define the mechanism by which IGF-II(More)
In order to develop a successful gene therapy system for the healing of bone defects, we developed a murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based retroviral system expressing the human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 transgene with high transduction efficiency. The bone formation potential of BMP4 transduced cells was tested by embedding 2.5 x 10(6) transduced(More)
Cobalamin deficiency has well-known hematologic and neurologic effects, but little is known about its other effects. We therefore studied the effect of cobalamin on osteoblast-related proteins. We found that mean (+/- 1 SD) levels of skeletal alkaline phosphatase in the blood were lower in 12 cobalamin-deficient patients (3.89 +/- 2.19 units per liter) than(More)
Phenytoin therapy is a well recognized cause of gingival hyperplasia, a condition characterized by increased gingival collagen synthesis, and may also cause acromegalic-like facial features. Based on these clinical findings suggestive of anabolic actions, we sought to test the hypothesis that phenytoin acts on normal bone cells to induce osteogenic effects.(More)
High-density C3H/HeJ (C3H) and low-density C57BL/6J (B6) mice, with femoral bone density differing by 50%, were chosen as a model to investigate the mechanisms controlling peak bone density and to map peak bone density genes. The present longitudinal study was undertaken to further establish the bone biologic phenotypes of these two inbred strains of mice.(More)
Normal intestinal calcium (Ca) absorption is an essential feature of bone homeostasis. As with many other organ systems, intestinal Ca absorption declines with aging, and this is one pathological factor that has been identified as a cause of senile osteoporosis in the elderly. This abnormality leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is characterized(More)
Long-term use of phenytoin for the treatment of epilepsy has been associated with increased thickness of craniofacial bones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility that low doses of phenytoin are osteogenic in vivo by measuring the effects of phenytoin administration on serum and bone histomorphometric parameters of bone formation in(More)
Fluoride is an effective anabolic agent to increase spinal bone density by increasing bone formation, and at therapeutically relevant (i.e., micromolar) concentrations, it stimulates bone cell proliferation and activities in vitro and in vivo. However, the fluoride therapy of osteoporosis has been controversial, in large part because of a lack of consistent(More)
The effects of fluoride (20 mumol/L) and bovine bone extract (17 micrograms/ml) were determined on cultures of human bone cells, embryonic chick bone cells, and human skin fibroblasts. The incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA was measured 16 hours after the addition of factors. After three to five days treatment, Triton X-100 extracts of the cells were(More)
Micromolar concentrations of aluminum sulfate consistently stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and increased cellular alkaline phosphatase activity (an osteoblastic differentiation marker) in osteoblast-line cells of chicken and human. The stimulations were highly reproducible, and were biphasic and dose-dependent with the maximal stimulatory(More)