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Proper regulation of chondrocyte differentiation is necessary for the morphogenesis of skeletal elements, yet little is known about the molecular regulation of this process. A chicken homolog of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a member of the conserved Hedgehog family of secreted proteins that is expressed during bone formation, has now been isolated. Ihh has(More)
The PTH/PTHrP receptor binds to two ligands with distinct functions: the calcium-regulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and the paracrine factor, PTH-related protein (PTHrP). Each ligand, in turn, is likely to activate more than one receptor. The functions of the PTH/PTHrP receptor were investigated by deletion of the murine gene by homologous(More)
We report four experiments leading to conclusions that: (i) the face-inversion effect is mainly due to the deficits in processing of configural information from inverted faces; and (ii) this effect occurs primarily at the encoding stage of face processing, rather than at the storage stage. In experiment 1, participants discriminated upright faces differing(More)
The inherent complexity of cellular signaling networks and their importance to a wide range of cellular functions necessitates the development of modeling methods that can be applied toward making predictions and highlighting the appropriate experiments to test our understanding of how these systems are designed and function. We use methods of statistical(More)
To examine the relationship between growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in controlling postnatal growth, we performed a comparative analysis of dwarfing phenotypes manifested in mouse mutants lacking GH receptor, IGF1, or both. This genetic study has provided conclusive evidence demonstrating that GH and IGF1 promote postnatal growth(More)
Human multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) has recently been determined to confer resistance to the antiviral purine analog 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine and methotrexate. However, neither its substrate selectivity nor physiological functions have been determined. Here we report the results of investigations of the in vitro transport properties of(More)
The voltage-sensitive sodium channel confers electrical excitability on neurons, a fundamental property required for higher processes including cognition. The ion-conducting alpha-subunit of the channel is regulated by two known auxiliary subunits, beta1 and beta2. We have identified rat and human forms of an additional subunit, beta3. It is most closely(More)
BACKGROUND Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 1 and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT or MRP2) are adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters that confer resistance to anticancer agents. In addition to these two transporters, there are at least four other human MRP subfamily members (MRP3 through MRP6). We and(More)
A 12.5-kDa cysteine-rich adipose tissue-specific secretory factor (ADSF/resistin) is a novel secreted protein rich in serine and cysteine residues with a unique cysteine repeat motif of CX(12)CX(8)CXCX(3)CX(10)CXCXCX(9)CC. A single 0.8-kilobase mRNA coding for this protein was found in various murine white adipose tissues including inguinal and epididymal(More)