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We propose a two-stage hierarchical arti®cial neural network for the segmentation of color images based on the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM). The ®rst stage of the network employs a ®xed-size two-dimensional feature map that captures the dominant colors of an image in an unsupervised mode. The second stage combines a variable-sized one-dimensional(More)
To evaluate the effects of genetic polymorphisms of OPG, RANK, and ESR1, which regulate osteoclastogenesis, on bone mineral density (BMD), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 650 Korean postmenopausal women. BMDs of the distal radius and the calcaneus were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Genetic polymorphisms of OPG 163 A > G, 1181(More)
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder is an uncommon condition of unknown neoplastic potential. In adults the tumor is seen in association with instrumentation of the lower genitourinary tract, while in children it appears to run an idiopathic course. Its clinical and radiological presentation in children resembles sarcoma. The case of a(More)
Background: We reviewed the computed tomographic (CT) findings of afferent loop obstruction and assessed the value of helical CT in determining the underlying cause. Methods: Helical CT scans of 18 patients (12 men and six women; age range = 35–67, mean age = 50 years) with afferent loop obstruction were reviewed. All patients had gastric cancer. Ten(More)
One generic technique for model idealisation is dimensional reduction. In dimensional reduction, the finite element model makes use of elements of reduced dimension, such as beams, plates and shells. This project describes some operations that have been defined and implemented which allow the user to reduce the dimensionality of geometric models(More)
Most bronchogenic cysts occur in the mediastinum. However, they may be found near any organ derived from the embryonic foregut, even in the extrathoracic region. We report a case of subphrenic bronchogenic cyst that was initially confused with a solid lesion because of its unusual location and atypical appearance on ultrasonography, computed tomography,(More)
To assess the intermediate-term result of the use of the minimally invasive technique in the treatment of choledochal cysts in children. This is a retrospective review of all cases of choledochal cyst treated in the tertiary referral centre. The surgical technique is described and all the medical records were reviewed to assess the intraoperative and(More)
Meckel’s diverticulum, the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, is prone to develop complications in the pediatric population. The authors report their 10-year experience with the management of complicated Meckel’s diverticulum in children using laparoscopy. A retrospective review of all complicated Meckel’s diverticulum cases(More)
BACKGROUND Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has been successfully performed in children using 5-mm reticulating instruments. There are, however, few reports investigating the use of conventional instruments in SILS in the pediatric population. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive children who underwent SILS from(More)