Learn More
T cell line-tropic (T-tropic) HIV type 1 strains enter cells by interacting with the cell-surface molecules CD4 and CXCR4. We have generated transgenic mice predominantly expressing human CD4 and CXCR4 on their CD4-positive T lymphocytes (CD4+ T cells). Their primary thymocytes are susceptible to T-tropic but not to macrophage-tropic HIV-1 infection in(More)
Monoclonal antibodies against immune checkpoint blockade have proven to be a major success in the treatment of melanoma. The programmed death receptor-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression on melanoma cells is believed to have an inhibitory effect on T cell responses and to be an important escape mechanism from immune attack. Previous studies have shown that PD-L1(More)
Approximately 50% of melanomas require oncogenic B-RAF(V600E) signaling for proliferation, survival, and metastasis, and the use of highly selective B-RAF inhibitors has yielded remarkable, although short-term, clinical responses. Reactivation of signaling downstream of B-RAF is frequently associated with acquired resistance to B-RAF inhibitors, and the(More)
The epigenetic modifier EZH2 is part of the polycomb repressive complex that suppresses gene expression via histone methylation. Activating mutations in EZH2 are found in a subset of melanoma that contributes to disease progression by inactivating tumor suppressor genes. In this study we have targeted EZH2 with a specific inhibitor (GSK126) or depleted EZH2(More)
Histone acetylation marks have an important role in controlling gene expression and are removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs). These marks are read by bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins and novel inhibitiors of these proteins are currently in clinical development. Inhibitors of HDAC and BET proteins have individually been shown to cause(More)
Many spectrum methods have been proposed to use spectrum effectively, the opportunistic spectrum access has become the most viable approach to achieve near-optimal spectrum utilization by allowing secondary users to sense and access available spectrum opportunistically. However, a naive spectrum access for secondary users can make spectrum utilization(More)
  • 1