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The design of biodegradable implants for sustained release of proteins is a complex challenge optimizing protein polymer interaction in combination with a mini-scale process which is predictive for production. The process of hot melt extrusion (HME) was therefore conducted on 5- and 9-mm mini-scale twin screw extruders. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)(More)
BACKGROUND Our group developed a protocol, entitled Early Appropriate Care (EAC), to determine timing of definitive fracture fixation based on presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. We hypothesized that utilization of EAC would result in fewer complications than a historical cohort and that EAC patients with definitive fixation within 36 h would have(More)
The alpha-amino group of clupeine fraction Z from herring sperm was coupled with fluorescein. Binding of the labeled protamine by DNA is accompanied by significant fluorescence quenching up to 80%. This allowed the convenient determination of the binding behavior of protamine and DNA. Binding was found to be strongly cooperative and not be significantly(More)
To decipher on a molecular level the role of protamine phosphorylation in spermiogenesis, clupeine Z species containing one, two or three serine phosphates were prepared utilizing a recently developed chemical procedure. The melting of complexes with calf thymus DNA showed that thermal stability decreases with increasing degree of phosphorylation. The(More)
The influence of protamine phosphorylation upon the conformation of nucleoprotamine complexes was studied at different ionic strengths using circular dichroism. The sharp onset of CD spectral changes upon decreasing the NaC1 concentrationwas correlated with the beginning of complex formation and can be used to determine apparent binding affinities in terms(More)
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