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Among the molecular mechanisms that have been proposed to contribute to long-term potentiation in hippocampus are the activation and autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). Here we report that high, but not low frequency stimulation applied to two groups of CA1 afferents resulted in a long lasting increase in the(More)
Leptin is well known to be involved in the control of feeding, reproduction and neuroendocrine functions through its action on the hypothalamus. However, leptin receptors are found in brain regions other than the hypothalamus (including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex) suggesting extrahypothalamic functions. We investigated hippocampal long-term(More)
Alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins are cyclic hexamers, heptamers, and octamers of glucose, respectively, and thus are hydrophilic; nevertheless, they have the ability to solubilize lipids through the formation of molecular inclusion complexes. The volume of lipophilic space involved in the solubilization process increases with the number of glucose(More)
Induction of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices is associated with increased activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) (Fukunaga, K., Stoppini, L., Miyamoto, E., and Muller, D. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 7863-7867). Here we report that application of high but not low frequency stimulation to two(More)
The importance of well characterized calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II in hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) is widely well established; however, several CaMKs other than CaMKII are not yet clearly characterized and understood. Here we report the activation of CaMKIV, which is phosphorylated by CaMK kinase and localized(More)
NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase family protein, is known to bind to C-terminal ends of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) through its PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains. NE-dlg/SAP102 and NR2B colocalize at synaptic sites in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, and their expressions increase in(More)
Polyclonal antibodies against Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) of rat brain were prepared by immunizing rabbits and then purified by antigen-affinity column. The antibodies which recognized both subunits of the enzyme with Mrs 49K and 60K were used for the study on the distribution of CaM kinase II in formalin-fixed,(More)
In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, glutamate elevated the Ca(2+)-independent activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) through autophosphorylation when the neurons were incubated in Mg(2+)-free buffer, and this response was blocked by specific antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In addition, glutamate(More)
Leptin, an adipocytokine encoded by an obesity gene and expressed in adipose tissue, affects feeding behavior, thermogenesis, and neuroendocrine status via leptin receptors distributed in the brain, especially in the hypothalamus. Leptin may also modulate the synaptic plasticity and behavioral performance related to learning and memory since: leptin(More)
Calcineurin dephosphorylated microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and tau factor phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent and Ca2+, calmodulin-dependent protein kinases from the brain. Tubulin, only phosphorylated by the Ca2+, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, served as substrate for calcineurin. The concentrations of calmodulin required to give(More)