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BACKGROUND . Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase family are required for the clearance of potentially toxic aldehydes, and are essential for the production of key metabolic regulators. The cytosolic, or class 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) of higher vertebrates has an enhanced specificity for all-trans retinal, oxidising it to the powerful(More)
The effects of quercetin and resveratrol (substances found in red wine) on the activity of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase in vitro are compared with those of the synthetic hormone diethylstilbestrol. It is proposed that quercetin inhibits the enzyme by binding competitively in both the aldehyde substrate binding-pocket and the NAD(+)-binding site, whereas(More)
Isolated rat hepatocytes are used in many metabolic studies, but the viability of these cell preparations is often not adequately established. The present study shows that ATP content is a more reliable index of metabolic viability than trypan blue exclusion. At some of the low trypan blue exclusion levels quoted in the literature, a high percentage of cell(More)
The membrane spanning enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT; EC 2.3.2.2) catalyses the breakdown of the tripeptide glutathione and uses free amino acids (AA) to form gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GT) AA that become transported into cells and converted back into free AA. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase activity has been shown to be important for(More)
We used titration with the inhibitors tetramethylene sulphoxide and isobutyramide to assess quantitatively the importance of alcohol dehydrogenase in regulation of ethanol oxidation in rat hepatocytes. In hepatocytes isolated from starved rats the apparent Flux Control Coefficient (calculated assuming a single-substrate irreversible reaction with(More)
Both metabolic and nonmetabolic mechanisms have been proposed to the plasma amino acid decreasing effect of an acute ethanol load. We used tert-butanol, an alcohol that is only minimally metabolized, as a tool to explain the mechanism behind the amino acid decreasing effect of ethanol. Acute administration of tert-butanol was found to exert a decreasing(More)
Quercetin is a flavonoid found in red wine and many other dietary sources. Observations concerning the state of ionisation and the stability of the compound over a range of pH are presented. Quercetin is a potent inhibitor of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase at physiological pH when the concentration of either the substrate or the cofactor is relatively(More)