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BACKGROUND Rare mutations affecting the FOXP2 transcription factor cause a monogenic speech and language disorder. We hypothesized that neural pathways downstream of FOXP2 influence more common phenotypes, such as specific language impairment. METHODS We performed genomic screening for regions bound by FOXP2 using chromatin immunoprecipitation, which led(More)
The X-linked muscle-wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for the disease; however, the complex molecular pathology of this disorder is now being unravelled. Dystrophin is located at the muscle sarcolemma in a membrane-spanning protein complex that(More)
The absence of dystrophin at the muscle membrane leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease that is inevitably fatal in early adulthood. In contrast, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice appear physically normal despite their underlying muscle pathology. We describe mice deficient for both dystrophin and the dystrophin-related(More)
Utrophin is a dystrophin-related cytoskeletal protein expressed in many tissues. It is thought to link F-actin in the internal cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein complex similar to the dystrophin protein complex (DPC). At the adult neuromuscular junction (NMJ), utrophin is precisely colocalized with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and recent studies(More)
Dystrophin-deficient mice (mdx) expressing a truncated (trc) utrophin transgene show amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype. Here we report a multifunctional study demonstrating that trcutrophin expression leads to major improvements of the mechanical performance of muscle (that is, force development, mechanical resistance to forced lengthenings and(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive muscle-wasting disease that causes cardiac or respiratory failure and results in death at about 20 years of age. Replacement of the missing protein, dystrophin, using myoblast transfer in humans or viral/liposomal delivery in the mouse DMD model is inefficient and short-lived. One alternative(More)
Utrophin, or dystrophin-related protein, is an autosomal homologue of dystrophin. The protein is apparently ubiquitously expressed and in muscle tissues the expression is developmentally regulated. Since utrophin has a similar domain structure to dystrophin it has been suggested that it could substitute for dystrophin in dystrophic muscle. Like dystrophin,(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the 427-kDa cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Increased knowledge of the function of dystrophin and its role in muscle has led to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of DMD. This, together with advances in the genetic toolkit of the molecular biologist, are leading to(More)
Forkhead-box protein P2 is a transcription factor that has been associated with intriguing aspects of cognitive function in humans, non-human mammals, and song-learning birds. Heterozygous mutations of the human FOXP2 gene cause a monogenic speech and language disorder. Reduced functional dosage of the mouse version (Foxp2) causes deficient cortico-striatal(More)