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BACKGROUND Rare mutations affecting the FOXP2 transcription factor cause a monogenic speech and language disorder. We hypothesized that neural pathways downstream of FOXP2 influence more common phenotypes, such as specific language impairment. METHODS We performed genomic screening for regions bound by FOXP2 using chromatin immunoprecipitation, which led(More)
The absence of dystrophin at the muscle membrane leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a severe muscle-wasting disease that is inevitably fatal in early adulthood. In contrast, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice appear physically normal despite their underlying muscle pathology. We describe mice deficient for both dystrophin and the dystrophin-related(More)
Utrophin is a dystrophin-related cytoskeletal protein expressed in many tissues. It is thought to link F-actin in the internal cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein complex similar to the dystrophin protein complex (DPC). At the adult neuromuscular junction (NMJ), utrophin is precisely colocalized with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and recent studies(More)
The X-linked muscle-wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for the disease; however, the complex molecular pathology of this disorder is now being unravelled. Dystrophin is located at the muscle sarcolemma in a membrane-spanning protein complex that(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, progressive muscle-wasting disease that causes cardiac or respiratory failure and results in death at about 20 years of age. Replacement of the missing protein, dystrophin, using myoblast transfer in humans or viral/liposomal delivery in the mouse DMD model is inefficient and short-lived. One alternative(More)
Forkhead-box protein P2 is a transcription factor that has been associated with intriguing aspects of cognitive function in humans, non-human mammals, and song-learning birds. Heterozygous mutations of the human FOXP2 gene cause a monogenic speech and language disorder. Reduced functional dosage of the mouse version (Foxp2) causes deficient cortico-striatal(More)
Utrophin, or dystrophin-related protein, is an autosomal homologue of dystrophin. The protein is apparently ubiquitously expressed and in muscle tissues the expression is developmentally regulated. Since utrophin has a similar domain structure to dystrophin it has been suggested that it could substitute for dystrophin in dystrophic muscle. Like dystrophin,(More)
The modulation of utrophin gene expression in muscle by the nerve-derived factor agrin plausibly involves the trophic factor ARIA/heregulin. Here we show that heregulin treatment of mouse and human cultured myotubes caused a approximately 2.5-fold increase in utrophin mRNA levels. Transient transfection experiments with utrophin promoter-reporter gene(More)
Dystrophin coordinates the assembly of a complex of structural and signaling proteins that are required for normal muscle function. A key component of the dystrophin protein complex is alpha-dystrobrevin, a dystrophin-associated protein whose absence results in neuromuscular junction defects and muscular dystrophy. To gain further insights into the role of(More)